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Inactive Lifestyle Linked to Ozone-Related Lung

An inactive lifestyle may increase the risk of environmentally induced asthma symptoms. In a new study published in the American Journal of Physiology—Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency researchers found that sedentary rats exposed to varying degrees of ozone, a type of air pollution, had higher markers for chronic disease when compared to counterparts that were more active.

Cigarette Smoke Exposure Increases Scar Tissue in the Kidney and Heart, Study Finds

Smoking may lead to fibrosis in the heart and kidneys and can worsen existing kidney disease, according to a new study published in Physiological Genomics. The research team suggests that exposure to cigarette smoke negatively affects genetic messaging that controls tissue scarring.

Long-Term Use of Postmenopausal Estrogen Treatment May Impair Kidney Function

Long-term estrogen treatment after menopause may increase the risk of new kidney damage and negatively affect women with abnormal kidney function. New research published in the American Journal of Physiology—Renal Physiology finds that markers for kidney damage worsened in a rat model of menopause as the length of estrogen treatment increased.

Smoke + Hot Temperatures = Increased SIDS Risk

Researchers are a step closer to understanding why cigarette smoke exposure during pregnancy may increase the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). SIDS is the unexplained, sudden death of a child younger than one year of age. A new study published in the American Journal of Physiology – Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology finds that prenatal cigarette smoke exposure in rats affected breathing responses and immune function of their offspring. Breathing and immune function are further negatively affected by high room temperatures.

Study Explores How Immune System Functions During Sleep

Research published in the American Journal of Physiology – Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology gives new insight into sleep’s importance to overall health: it may give the immune system a chance to regroup at a time when the relative risk of infection is low. The research team observed that healthy volunteers had greatly reduced numbers of certain T cell subsets within three hours of falling asleep. While it’s unclear where the T cells go during sleep, the researchers have some guesses to where and why they migrate.

Integrative Biology of Exercise 7: Friday Research Highlights

Read about today’s highlighted research abstracts.

Testosterone Levels Improve in Overweight, Obese Men after 12-Week Exercise Program

Twelve weeks of aerobic exercise significantly boosted testosterone levels in overweight and obese men, according to researchers from Tsukuba University and Ryutsu Keizai University in Japan. Increased levels were highest among men who exercised vigorously. The new findings will be presented at the Integrative Biology of Exercise 7 meeting in Phoenix.

Exercise during Pregnancy May Reduce Markers of Aging in Offspring

Exercise during pregnancy may be as effective in protecting the next generation from age-related health risks as efforts made during the offspring’s own adulthood, new research suggests. University of Kentucky researchers will present their findings at the Integrative Biology of Exercise 7 meeting.

Dad’s Preconception Exercise May Increase Obesity, Insulin Resistance Risk in Offspring

Fathers who exercise regularly before their children are conceived may program their offspring's genes with an increased risk for metabolic disorders, according to new research from East Carolina University. The surprising results, to be presented at the Integrative Biology of Exercise 7 meeting, point to the identification of epigenetic markers that may change the process of diagnosis and management of chronic disease.

Exercise May Shield Against the Health Fallout of a Weeklong Overindulgence

Previous studies show that as little as one week of overeating can impair glycemic control and insulin sensitivity. Just in time for holiday feasting, a new study by University of Michigan researchers finds that exercise can protect fat tissue from changes in inflammation levels and fat metabolism caused by a brief period of eating too many calories. Research will be presented at the Integrative Biology of Exercise meeting in Phoenix.

Hate Exercise? It May Be in Your Genes

Genes, specifically those that modulate dopamine in the brain, may play a role in a person’s propensity to embrace or avoid exercise. Rodney Dishman of the University of Georgia will present findings from studies in rats and humans in his talk “Genetics of Exercise Avoidance” at the Integrative Biology of Exercise 7 meeting in Phoenix.

Regular Exercisers Still Face Health Risks From Too Much Sitting

People who meet recommended weekly physical activity guidelines are still at risk of developing chronic disease if they spend too much non-exercising time sitting, new research suggests. Peter Katzmarzyk of the Pennington Biomedical Research Center will present findings at the Integrative Biology of Exercise 7 meeting.

Study Finds Weight Loss after Obesity Doesn’t Cut Risk of Certain Types of Cancer

Losing weight may not protect against colon and liver cancer, even though obesity is associated with increased risk of certain types of gastrointestinal malignancy. The research, published in the American Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, was chosen as an APSselect article for November.

Integrative Biology of Exercise 7: Thursday Research Highlights

Read about today’s highlighted research abstracts.

CALL FOR NOMINATIONS for the Editorship of Physiological Reports

APS is accepting nominations for the editorship of the Physiological Reports to succeed Susan Wray, who will complete her term as Editor on December 31, 2017.

CALL FOR NOMINATIONS for the Editorship of American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology

APS is accepting nominations for the editorship of AJP-Lung to succeed Sadis Matalon, who will complete his term as Editor on December 31, 2017.

CALL FOR NOMINATIONS for the Editorship of Physiological Reviews

Nominations are invited for the Editorship of Physiological Reviews to succeed Dennis Brown, who will complete his term as Editor on December 31, 2017.

Community Colleges Play Essential Role in Physiology Education

Despite community colleges serving an important role in the STEM education pipeline, physiology students and faculty at these schools are not getting the same professional development and collaboration opportunities as their counterparts at four-year institutions. Two community college faculty members addressed this disparity in Advances in Physiology Education.

Leading Experts Convene to Discuss the Effects, Potential of Exercise throughout the Lifespan

Hundreds of researchers on the leading edge of exercise science will meet at the Integrative Biology of Exercise meeting in Phoenix (Nov. 2–4). Symposia topics will cover brain cell stress responses, metabolic diseases, mitochondrial signaling, sedentary behavior, exercise and pregnancy, cardiovascular disease, aging, stem cells and more.

Ability to Process Speech Declines with Age

Researchers have found clues to the causes of age-related hearing loss. The ability to track and understand speech in both quiet and noisy environments deteriorates due in part to speech processing declines in both the midbrain and cortex in older adults. The study, published in the Journal of Neurophysiology, was chosen as an APSselect article for October.

Interval Exercise Training Improves Blood Vessel Function in Older

Researchers have found that interval exercise training (resistance-based and cardiovascular) improves endothelial function in older adults. Resistance interval training in particular could help reduce the risk of heart disease in adults with type 2 diabetes. The study is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Heart and Circulatory Physiology.

Common Bacteria Show Promise for Treating Celiac Disease

Researchers have isolated an enzyme from bacteria present in human saliva that has potential as a therapy for celiac disease (CD), an autoimmune disorder that causes severe digestive and other health problems among sufferers when they consume gluten. The study, published in the American Journal of Physiology—Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, was chosen as an APSselect article for September.

Nonhuman Primate Research Integral to Search for Future Cures

Research in nonhuman primates (NHP) has led to some of the most significant medical advancements known today and will be essential to continued biomedical progress, according to a new white paper developed by experts from APS and 8 other biomedical research organizations. Read more highlights and find a link to the full paper “The Critical Role of Nonhuman Primates in Medical Research.”

Researchers Target Gut Bacteria to Reduce Weight Gain

Adding engineered bacteria into the guts of mice both kept them from gaining weight and protected them against some of the negative health effects of obesity. Researchers will present their findings today at the American Physiological Society’s Inflammation, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease conference.

MicroRNAs May Link Inflammation and Heart Disease in Obese People

Results from a new study suggest that small molecules known as microRNAs may be part of the pathway connecting inflammation with increased heart disease risk in obese people. The new findings will be presented at the American Physiological Society’s Inflammation, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease conference.

Could the Paleo Diet Benefit Heart Health?

Findings from a small study suggest that people who followed the Paleo diet for only eight weeks experienced positive effects on heart health. Preliminary findings from this research will be presented at the American Physiological Society’s Inflammation, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease conference

Stiff Arteries Linked with Memory Problems, Mouse Study Suggests

Using a new mouse model, researchers have found that stiffer arteries can also negatively affect memory and other critical brain processes. The findings, which may eventually reveal how arterial stiffness leads to Alzheimer’s and other diseases involving dementia, will be presented at the American Physiological Society’s Inflammation, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease conference.

Researchers Convene to Explore Role of Inflammation, Immune Response in Cardiovascular Disease

More and more research points to the involvement of inflammation and the immune system on the development of cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular physiologists and immunologists will meet to explore how these mechanisms interact at the Inflammation, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease conference in Westminster, Colo., on Aug. 24–27, 2016.

Dad’s Fatty Diet Can Lead to Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome in Grand-Offspring

Researchers report on how paternal intake of a high-fat diet causes changes in genes that lead to generational obesity and metabolic dysfunction, including body weight and fat mass increases and changes in blood pressure, triglyceride levels and fat metabolism. However, these effects in offspring can be significantly improved or abolished by feeding lower fat diet to subsequent generations. The article is published in AJP-Endocrinology and Metabolism and was chosen as an APSselect article for August.

Study in Rats Finds Maternal Intake of Past-Its-Prime Fish Oil Linked to Newborn Death

Released July 22, 2016 - Nearly 30 percent of newborn pups born to pregnant rats fed highly-oxidized (“off”) fish oil died within two days after birth, finds a new study by researchers at the Liggins Institute at the University of Auckland in New Zealand. The research is published in the American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology.

Extra Fat Does Not Act as an Insulator

Carrying excess fat does not contribute to a warmer body in obese mice, a new study on the insulating effects of fat finds. The article is published in the American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism.

The Reason Behind Your Group Project Fail

Group projects: Love them or hate them, working as a team is a necessary skill (or evil depending on who you ask). Researchers at Wright State University found that their natural science students anecdotally reported poor experiences working on teams. So they explored whether teaching students how to effectively function on teams positively affected learning outcomes and final grades.

Standardized-Exam Development Approach Improves Classroom Exams

Blueprinting may improve consistency of exams in the classroom year to year. A medical school professor discusses how he successfully predicted students’ performance on a first-year medical course exam he developed using blueprinting at the APS Institute on Teaching and Learning Workshop.

Active Learning Science Courses May Improve Student Retention in STEM

Having undergraduate students take part in scientific discovery may be a viable way to keep students interested in STEM, according to a growing body of research by science educators and education researchers. Experts summarize the successes and challenges of discovery-based research courses at the APS Institute on Teaching and Learning Workshop.

Science Educators Convene to Discuss What’s Next and New in Teaching Physiology

Dozens of undergraduate and professional school physiology educators will attend this workshop-intensive meeting to discuss best practices in physiology education, including: the changing role of students and instructors in today’s classrooms; new teaching strategies that attendees can employ in their own classrooms; new research on student learning behaviors; and challenges of engaging millennial learners.

June APSselect Research Highlights

Research selected as part of the APSselect program is considered the month’s “best of the best” by the APS journals editors-in-chiefs. This month’s highlighted research includes a study on the consequences of rehydrating with soda and how chronic alcohol exposure can lead to pancreatic problems.

Excess Consumption of Phosphates in Processed Foods Promotes Hypertension in Rats

Excess consumption of phosphate—commonly used in foods as a preservative, flavor enhancer and color stabilizer—over-activates nerves that raise blood pressure, leading to abnormally high blood pressure, a new study in the American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology reports. The findings highlight the need for further studies in humans to determine if the amount of added phosphate should be included on food labels.

Early-Life Stress Causes Digestive Problems and Anxiety in Rats

Traumatic events early in life can increase levels of norepinephrine—the primary hormone responsible for preparing the body to react to stressful situations—in the gut, increasing the risk of developing chronic indigestion and anxiety during adulthood, a new study in the American Journal of Physiology—Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology reports.

APS Awards $403,200 to Its 2016 Undergraduate Research Fellows

APS has announced the 74 recipients of its 2016 Undergraduate Summer Research Fellowships. Recipients of the Society’s five summer fellowship programs spend an average of 10 weeks in the laboratory of an established scientist and APS member.

Chronic Drinking Interferes with Absorption of Critical Vitamins by Pancreas

Chronic exposure to alcohol interferes with the pancreas’ ability to absorb vitamin C, potentially predisposing the body to pancreatitis and other pancreatic diseases, a new study in the American Journal of Physiology—Cell Physiology reports. The findings provide a link between chronic alcohol use and poor pancreatic health.

Study Shows How Atherosclerosis and Osteoporosis Are Linked

Patients with atherosclerosis are at a higher risk of osteoporosis. A new study published in the American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism reports that atherosclerosis reduces the number of bone-forming cells, leading to loss of bone density. This study is highlighted as one of this month’s “best of the best” as part of the American Physiological Society’s APSselect program.

Call for Nominations for the Editorship of Journal of Applied Physiology

Nominations are invited for the Editorship of the Journal of Applied Physiology to succeed Peter D. Wagner, who will complete his term as Editor on June 30, 2017.

Dry Eyes No More: New Insight May Lead to Better Detection and Treatment of Common Autoimmune Disease

Sjögren's syndrome affects an estimated four million people in the U.S., but diagnosis is often delayed because its symptoms are similar to other conditions. A new study in the American Journal of Physiology—Cell Physiology describes a protein with the potential to be an earlier and more precise indicator of the disease.

More than Just Eyes and Skin: Vitamin A Affects the Heart

Vitamin A is important for heart development in embryos, but whether it has a role in maintaining heart health is unclear. A new study in the American Journal of Physiology—Heart and Circulatory Physiology finds that the heart is able to respond to vitamin A and the amount of vitamin A present has an effect. However, whether the effects are beneficial or harmful is still a mystery.

Jane Reckelhoff, PhD, Becomes 89th President of the American Physiological Society

Jane Reckelhoff, PhD, was installed as APS president in April, immediately following the APS annual meeting at Experimental Biology 2016. Reckelhoff is a Billy S. Guyton Distinguished Professor, director of the Women’s Health Research Center, director of research development for the Office of Research and Sponsored Programs and professor of physiology and biophysics at the University of Mississippi Medical Center.

New Officers Join Leadership of the American Physiological Society

APS is pleased to introduce the new members of its leadership: President Elect Dennis Brown, PhD, and Councilors Jennifer S. Pollock, PhD; Willis K. Samson, PhD; and Harold D. Schultz, PhD. The new officers were elected by the APS membership and took office in April at the Experimental Biology meeting in San Diego.

Health Improvements after Gastric-Bypass Surgery Start Well before Dramatic Weight Loss Begins

New research presented at the Experimental Biology 2016 meeting suggests that fat and blood sugar control and cardiovascular health start improving in the early stages of recovery before dramatic weight loss occurs.

Move Over, Polar Bear Plunge: Ice Swimming Is Next Big Extreme Winter Water Sport

Hundreds of athletes around the globe are competing in one-mile ice swims. Performance and human physiological response in water 5 degrees Celsius or less has not been well-studied. Researchers will present new data on how age, gender and environmental factors such as wind chill affect ice swimming performance at Experimental Biology 2016.

The Down Side of Your Sweet and Salty Addiction: Rapid Onset High Blood Pressure?

High levels of fructose similar to amounts consumed within the American diet may predispose individuals to fast-onset, salt-sensitive hypertension, according to New research presented at the Experimental Biology 2016 meeting in San Diego.

Exercise Reduces Cardiovascular Risk Factors from Constant Stress

Constant stress is associated with signs of poor blood vessel health and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. New research presented at the Experimental Biology 2016 meeting in San Diego finds that aerobic exercise kept the blood vessels of stressed rats working normally.

Fat Stunts Growth of Tobacco Hornworm Caterpillars

Tobacco hornworm caterpillars eating a high-fat diet are smaller than their counterparts eating a medium- or low-fat diet. New research presented at the Experimental Biology 2016 meeting found that fat decreased the caterpillars’ food consumption, leading to the smaller body size.

Do More Uphill Sprints! Higher Anaerobic Fitness Gives Edge to Mountain Ultra-Marathon Runners

New research presented at the Experimental Biology 2016 meeting suggests a runner’s pre-race anaerobic fitness capacity may be a key factor in determining who will have the fastest finishing times during grueling 50 km (31 mile) mountain ultramarathons.

Genetically Modified Mouse’s Brain Lights Up As It Thinks

Scientists have developed a genetically modified mouse with brain cells that light up when active. The new mouse will allow scientists to see how the brain processes information. This study is published in Journal of Neurophysiology and is highlighted as one of this month’s “best of the best” as part of the American Physiological Society’s APSselect program.

APS 2016 Distinguished Lectureship Award Winners to Present Talks at Experimental Biology

APS is pleased to recognize the outstanding honorees who will present their award lectures at the Experimental Biology 2016 meeting in San Diego.

Nobel Laureate, Leading Experts Speak in APS President’s Symposium Series

Leading research experts will discuss the physiology behind organ injury in alcohol abuse, the health impacts of diet, and adaptations to stress as part of the President's Symposium Series at the Experimental Biology 2016 meeting in San Diego. The series is anchored with the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Lecture by Nobel Laureate Roger Tsien, PhD.

The Brain May Show Signs of Aging Earlier than Old Age

A new study published in Physiological Genomics suggests that the brain shows signs of aging earlier than old age. The study found that the microglia cells—the immune cells of the brain—in middle-aged mice already showed altered activity seen in microglia from older mice.

Review Article Uncovers Clues to the Causes, Risk Factors for and Prevention of Drowning Deaths

An international team of researchers have published an extensive review of scientific literature on factors involved drowning fatalities in the journal Physiology. They outline how the fear of drowning, fitness level, fatigue, intoxication and other factors can contribute to negative outcomes and highlight warnings for people who may be at increased risk of drowning, such as those with heart conditions.

Meet Your New APS Officers

The votes have been counted and the 2016 APS election results are in! Meet our new president-elect and councilors in the March edition of The Physiologist.

Turning on Blood Flow Turns on Fat-Burning Brown Fat in Mice

Increasing the blood flow in brown fat causes it to burn more calories in mice and may help treat obesity, a new study in the Journal of Applied Physiology reports. This research is highlighted as one of this month’s “best of the best” as part of the American Physiological Society’s APSselect program.

Aging May Worsen the Effects of a High-Salt Diet

Age significantly impaired the ability of rats to get rid of excess sodium when exposed to a high-salt diet, according to research published in the American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. Findings could have implications for salt consumption in the elderly; suggest older people could be at greater risk for the negative consequences of eating a high-salt diet.

Rat Study Shows that Renal Denervation Helps to Bring Drug-Resistant Hypertension under Control

Most clinical studies have shown that renal denervation—a procedure that disrupts the nerves in the kidneys and prevents them from relaying signals—can treat drug-resistant hypertension, although a number have shown the procedure to be ineffective. A new study in the American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology supports that renal denervation can treat hypertension and suggests that failures may be due to incomplete procedure. This research is highlighted as one of this month’s “best of the best” as part of the American Physiological Society’s APSselect program.

Small Reduction in Food Intake May Be Enough to Slow Polycystic Kidney Disease

A small reduction in food intake—less than required to cause weight loss—dramatically slowed the development of a common genetic disorder called autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in mice, a new study in the American Journal of Physiology—Renal Physiology reports. There are no approved treatments for ADPKD in the U.S., and food reduction would be an ideal therapy because it most likely does not have side effects and is cost-effective, says the lead author.

Study May Explain Why Stroke Risk in Women Changes after Menopause

Overactive microglia—the brain’s immune cells—may worsen the damage from brain injury after stroke or head impact. A new study in the American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism reports that a compound produced from estrogen called 2-methoxyestradiol calms overactive microglia. The findings offer an explanation for why stroke risk in women changes after menopause and point to potential treatments for treating brain injuries in men and women.

Not the Weaker Sex: Estrogen Protects Women against the Flu, Study Finds

A new study published in the American Journal of Physiology—Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology finds that the female sex hormone estrogen has anti-viral effects against the influenza A virus, commonly known as the flu. The study supports why the flu may hit men harder than women.

Beyond Dance: Ballet Training Improves Muscle Coordination in Everyday Activities

A new study in the Journal of Neurophysiology reports that professional ballet dancers have more control over their muscles than individuals with no dance training. This research is highlighted as one of this month’s “best of the best” as part of the American Physiological Society’s APSselect program.

Still a Champion Runner at 80: Do Elite Athletes Have an Anti-Aging Secret in Their Muscles?

Elite runners do not experience the muscle weakening associated with aging as non-athletes do. A new study published in American Journal of Physiology—Cell Physiology examines if their superb fitness is because their muscles have not aged.

Carbs, Not Fats, Boost Half-Marathon Race Performance, Study Finds

Recent studies have proposed that burning fat instead of carbohydrates will improve exercise performance because the body's fat reserve is much larger than its carbohydrates reserve. A new study in Journal of Applied Physiology reports the opposite, finding that muscles rely on carbohydrates as their fuel source during prolonged exercise.

Study Links Environmental and Lifestyle Factors to Reproductive Problems, Infertility in Men

Environmental and lifestyle factors are damaging men’s reproductive health and may be playing a large role in decreasing fertility rates in industrialized countries, a new study in Physiological Reviews reports. Socioeconomic influences and female reproductive health cannot solely be blamed for higher incidences of infertility, the study supports.

Study Suggests New Strategy for Treating Rare Neurodegenerative Disorder Menkes Disease

Menkes disease arises from dysfunction in ATP7A, a protein that transports copper to cells, leading to brain development complications. Introducing working versions of ATP7A in the brain is considered the most direct therapeutic approach. However, a new study in AJP-Cell suggests that functioning ATP7A located elsewhere in the body, not necessarily the entire brain, can help treat the disorder. This research is highlighted as one of this month’s “best of the best” as part of the American Physiological Society’s APSselect program.

When Exercise Is Unhealthy for the Heart: Researchers Describe How Heart Problems and Sudden Cardiac Death Occur with Endurance Exercise

Endurance exercise accelerates the development of heart problems in individuals with a particular genetic mutation, a new study finds. In mice with a mutated version of desmoplakin, a protein that maintains the heart wall, exercise made the heart walls come apart sooner. The findings offer insight into how to best manage exercise in individuals with the mutation.

New Biomarker Predicts Development of Preeclampsia at Six Weeks of Pregnancy

Preeclampsia is generally diagnosed later in pregnancy, but new research reports that the protein copeptin can predict the development of preeclampsia as early as six weeks of gestation. The findings could lead to diagnosis of the disorder in the first trimester, improving care and potentially leading to the development of preventative measures.

Children Born to Women after Bariatric Surgery at Higher Risk of Obesity, Diabetes

Weight-loss surgery can boost fertility in women and reduce the risk of pregnancy complications that commonly occur in obese women. However, a new study in rats suggests that weight-loss surgery alters mothers’ hormone and chemical balance, which harms offspring during gestation and later in life.

Sex Reassignment Surgery May Be Better for Transgender Women’s Health than Hormones Only

Transgender women may be at a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes compared with men and women in the general population. New research finds that transgender women who received only hormone therapy had poorer metabolic health than transgender women who underwent sex reassignment surgery in addition to receiving hormone therapy, suggesting that sex reassignment surgery may be metabolically protective.

Is Testosterone Therapy Safe?

The increasing use of testosterone replacement therapy to treat reduced testosterone level in older men has been accompanied by growing concerns over its long-term safety. Two studies examining the health risks of receiving testosterone will be presented at Cardiovascular, Renal and Metabolic Diseases: Physiology and Gender conference, supporting opposite conclusions regarding risks.

Male Hormone Testosterone Cause of Sex Differences in Parkinson’s Disease Risk, Study Suggests

Men are twice as likely as women to develop Parkinson’s disease. New research suggests that testosterone enhances the susceptibility of brain cells that control movement to damage from chemical imbalances, explaining the sex differences in the occurrence of Parkinson’s.

Genes May Determine the Side Effects of Menopausal Hormone Therapy, Study Suggests

Cardiovascular disease risk in women increases after menopause and is associated with the drop in estrogen levels. Menopausal hormone therapy could slow the progression, but oral formulations also increase the risk of blood clots. A new study reports that whether a woman will obtain cardiovascular benefits from certain types of hormone therapy may depend on her genes.

Diet Lacking Soluble Fiber Promotes Weight Gain, Mouse Study Suggests

A new study in American Journal of Physiology--Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology highlights the importance of the gut microbiome in maintaining intestinal and metabolic health and suggests that eating more foods high in soluble fiber may help prevent metabolic disease and obesity. This research is highlighted as one of this month’s “best of the best” as part of the American Physiological Society’s APSselect program.

Novo Nordisk Foundation Continues Support of APS Awards

The Foundation will provide $100,000 over five years toward August Krogh Lecture and Bodil Schmidt-Nielsen Award. The awards are named in honor of physiologists August Krogh and Bodil Schmidt-Nielsen, who have made significant contributions to the field and also have unique ties to the Novo Nordisk Foundation and The American Physiological Society.

Clumsy? Ballet Might Help

Study in professional ballet dancers finds that ballet training may improve balance and coordination in daily activities.

New Study Explains Why You Bulk Up with Resistance Training, Not Endurance Training

Research published in Physiological Reports shows that resistance and endurance exercises activate the same gene, PGC-1a, but the processes stimulated for the muscles to adapt depend on the exercise type. The study offers insight into why the physical changes from resistance exercise are so different than from endurance exercise.

Physiology and Gender Conference to Present Latest Research on Sex Differences in Disease Risk

APS will host the Cardiovascular, Renal and Metabolic Diseases: Physiology and Gender conference Nov. 17–20, in Annapolis, Md. This meeting will bring together leading scientists studying the influence of sex and gender on cardiovascular, kidney and metabolic health and disease.

Gastric Bypass Surgery Improves Blood Sugar Handling and Insulin Sensitivity, Study Finds

Gastric bypass surgery can lead to remission of type 2 diabetes along with weight loss. A new study examines why, finding that insulin sensitivity of the body's main glucose (sugar) storage sites improve after gastric bypass surgery.

Lung Disease May Increase Risk of Insulin Resistance, Diabetes, Mouse Study Suggests

Numerous studies have identified obesity and poor diet as risk factors for insulin resistance and diabetes. Now, a new study adds another risk factor to the list: inflammatory lung disease. The article is published ahead-of-print in the AJP - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology.

Age, Not Post-Op Infection, More Important for Kidney Transplant Success, Study Finds

Infection by virus cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a major complication following kidney transplantation. CMV infection has been associated with increased kidney transplant failure and reduced patient survival. However, a new clinical study finds that age may be more important for long-term transplant and patient outcome.

For Veterans with Gulf War Illness, an Explanation for the Unexplainable Symptoms

One in four Gulf War veterans suffers from Gulf War Illness, a condition characterized by unexplainable chronic fatigue, muscle pain and cognitive dysfunction. New research finds for the first time direct evidence that the cells of Gulf War veterans cannot produce enough energy to run the body, explaining the fatigue and slow down of the body.

Mechanical Ventilators: From Breathing Help to Breathing Handicap

Mechanical ventilators are routinely used in both surgical and emergency situations every day in U.S. hospitals. Though often life saving in the short term, prolonged use of ventilators can lead to diaphragm weakness, and problems commonly arise—roughly 20 to 30 percent of the time—when weaning the patient off of the ventilator. In a new study, researchers at the University of Florida provide insights into what causes the weakness on a cellular level. Their result could lead to strategies that hospitals can use to help prevent ventilator-related diaphragm damage.

High-Intensity Training Delivers Results for Older Men—But Not for Older Women

High intensity training (HIT) is often recommended as a way to improve cardiovascular fitness in men and women, however, studies on these exercise regimens have focused on younger subjects. University of Copenhagen researchers looked at HIT effects in older males and females and found significant differences between men and women. They presented their results at the Physiological Bioenergetics conference in Tampa, Fla.

Chronic Drinking Disrupts Liver’s Circadian Clock, Contributes to Alcoholic Liver Disease

Staying on an internal schedule is important for health, and disease can occur if the body’s internal clock is disrupted. A new study reinforces the importance of circadian rhythm, reporting that chronic drinking contributes to alcoholic liver disease because it impairs the liver’s production schedule of molecules that power it to run.

Could the Bioenergetic Health Index Become the Next BMI?

A number of chronic diseases that have widespread effects on worldwide populations, such as cancer, neurodegeneration and cardio-metabolic syndromes, are known to have a connection to mitochondrial bioenergetics, the process by which cells create and use energy. “The bioenergetic health of an individual or group can serve as an early warning or the ‘canary in the coal mine’ to determine those with susceptibility to pathologies which stress the mitochondrion. It is clear that we urgently need new clinical tests to monitor changes in bioenergetics in patient populations,” said Victor Darley-Usmar of the University of Alabama at Birmingham and organizer for the “Physiological Bioenergetics: From Bench to Bedside” conference. The bioenergetic health index has the potential to be a new biomarker for assessing patient health for both prognostic and diagnostic value.

IV Administration of Endothelin B Receptor Drug Reduces Memory Loss, Oxidative Stress in Alzheimer’s Disease

An estimated 5.3 million people in the U.S. suffer from Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The five current FDA-approved AD medications only help mask the disease symptoms instead of treating the underlying disease. In a new study presented at the 14th International Conference on Endothelin: Physiology, Pathophysiology and Therapeutics, researchers used IRL-1620, a chemical that binds to endothelin B receptors, to treat AD in rats.

International Experts Talk Cancer, Sickle Cell, Diabetic Nephropathy Therapies at Endothelin Meeting in Savannah

Endothelin (ET) plays a role in many functions throughout the body, including blood vessel constriction and blood pressure regulation and in a number of disease pathologies. Insights gained through the study of ET have great therapeutic potential for health and disease. As ET experts convene for the 14th International Conference on Endothelin: Physiology, Pathophysiology and Therapeutics, the translational aspect of ET research will take center stage during the “Endothelin Therapeutics—Where Are We?” symposium.

Vitamin C: The Exercise Replacement?

Exercise improves health in overweight and obese adults but can be hard to incorporate into a daily routine. New findings show that taking vitamin C supplements daily instead can have similar cardiovascular benefits as regular exercise in these adults. This study will be presented at 14th International Conference on Endothelin: Physiology, Pathophysiology and Therapeutics in Savannah, Ga.

New Hope for Lou: Unexplored Therapeutic Targets for ALS

No cures exist for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and the only approved therapy slows the progression by only a few months. A new study identifies a promising unexplored avenue of treatment for ALS, the endothelin system. This study will be presented at 14th International Conference on Endothelin: Physiology, Pathophysiology and Therapeutics in Savannah, Ga.

One Protein, Many Fascinating Roles

Endothelin is a peptide produced by cells in the blood vessels and has powerful vessel-constricting effects. Although mainly associated with its role in blood pressure control and cardiovascular diseases, it continues to appear in other physiological functions and diseases. This symposium, taking place at 14th International Conference on Endothelin: Physiology, Pathophysiology and Therapeutics in Savannah, Ga., will discuss its roles in diabetes, cognitive decline, sickle cell disease and skin pigmentation.

CPAP Works: Common Sleep Apnea Treatment Reverses Brain Function Changes Associated with Heart Disease

CPAP machines are a common treatment for obstructive sleep apnea, but some people have a hard time adjusting and do not continue the treatment or are reluctant to start. A new study shows that CPAP is an effective sleep apnea treatment, finding that it reverses health changes that result in cardiovascular disease if the disorder is left untreated. This study is highlighted as one of this month’s “best of the best” as part of the APSselect program.

This Week’s Articles in PresS Highlights

Articles on the solution used to culture test-tube embryos and its role in future increased cardiovascular disease risk and the involvement of the Y chromosome in male disease and immune function are featured.

This Week’s Articles in PresS Highlights

New treatments for fibromyalgia and a dairy-derived protein discovered to be a prebiotic that holds promise for treating gastrointestinal conditions and obesity are featured this week.

New Research Shows Why Statins Should Be Viewed as a Double-Edged Sword

Statins have significant cardiovascular benefits, but also serious side effects. A new study finds that statin use impairs stem cell function, which helps in slowing atherosclerosis but hinders other body processes. Because of these effects, the study supports weighing individual risk when considering statins as a preventive measure.

Physiological Bioenergetics Meeting Focuses on Power Plant of Cells: The Mitochondria

The second in the APS fall conference series, this meeting will assemble cross-disciplinary experts who study mitochondrial function and its regulatory mechanisms, with a special emphasis on translational and physiological mechanisms

Endothelin-14 Conference to Present Cutting-Edge Therapeutic and Disease Findings

APS will host the 14th International Conference on Endothelin: Physiology, Pathophysiology and Therapeutics on September 2–5 in Savannah, Ga. The meeting will convene leading global researchers who study endothelin—a type of powerful peptide that constricts blood vessels, raises blood pressure and controls many other cellular functions throughout the body.

Resuming Exercise Soon After Heart Attack Can Improve Heart Recovery

Many lifestyle factors cause heart disease, and exercise may not be enough to prevent heart attacks. A new study shows that regular exercise can still benefit the heart after a heart attack occurs. This research is highlighted as one of this month’s “best of the best” as part of the American Physiological Society’s APSselect program.

This Week’s Articles in PresS Highlights

How the components of the Mediterranean lifestyle—with the exception of wine—work to combat cardiovascular disease risk and how drinking more beet juice can improve exercise performance and lengthen workouts are featured this week.

This Week’s Articles in PresS Highlights

The link between PTSD and cardiovascular disease and treating liver cirrhosis with diabetes drug metformin are featured this week.

Can Four Fish Oil Pills a Day Keep the Doctor Away? For Healthy Seniors, Perhaps

Omega-3 fish oil is a popular supplement because of its perceived cardiovascular benefits, but the scientific evidence has been conflicting. New research in Physiological Reports supports the claims for seniors, finding that healthy seniors who took omega-3 supplements every day had better cardiovascular health after 12 weeks of use.

July APSselect Research Highlights

Brown adipose transplantation reverses type 1 diabetes in mice; heme oxygenase system as a potential therapeutic strategy for cardiovascular diseases; benefits of caloric restriction for muscle metabolism and mass during middle age; muscle signature of a champion sprinter are among this month’s selected articles.

Electrical Nerve Stimulation Can Reverse Spinal Cord Injury Nerve Damage in Patients

Researchers find that nerve stimulation can improve the function of peripheral nerves damaged by spinal cord injury (SCI). This technique may be a new approach to preventing long-term changes in nerve and muscle function after SCI and improving SCI rehabilitation outcomes.This research is highlighted as one of this month’s “best of the best” as part of the American Physiological Society’s APSselect program.

Promising New NSAID-Derivative May Be Well-Tolerated by Chronic Pain Sufferers

Long-term use of naproxen (ALEVE), a type of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), is often prescribed for chronic pain conditions such as osteoarthritis. However, because of NSAID-related gastrointestinal problems including stomach and intestinal inflammation and ulcers, many are unable to tolerate ongoing use. A new study, published in the American Journal of Physiology–Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, finds that a naproxen-derivative may provide both symptom relief and gastrointestinal protection. The research is highlighted as one of this month’s “best of the best” as part of the American Physiological Society’s APSselect program.

E-Cigarette Vapor—Even when Nicotine-Free—Found to Damage Lung Cells

With the use of e-cigarettes on the rise, especially among young people, research to uncover the health effects of e-cigs is becoming increasingly important. In a new study published ahead of print in AJP-Lung, researchers find that e-cig solution and vapors—even those that are nicotine-free—damage lung health.

APS Awards $446,000 to Its 2015 Undergraduate Research Fellows

APS awards $446,000 to its 2015 undergraduate research fellows to spend an average of 10 weeks in the laboratory of an established scientist and APS member.

Sad News, Death of Bill Stanley, EIC, AJP-Heart

It is with great sadness that we announce the death of Bill Stanley, Editor-in-Chief of AJP-Heart in Sydney, Australia. Bill’s death was very sudden and the news is shocking. Bill was a passionate and innovative leader of AJP-Heart, and the Journal editors and staff will ensure that his work on the journal continues without pause. We express our deepest condolences to his family.

Inaugural Outstanding Junior Investigator Award

AJP-Lung is delighted to announce that we received nineteen nominations for papers on all aspects of lung biology.

APS Executive Director shares his views on open access in the New England Journal of Medicine

APS Executive Director shares his views on open access in a New England Journal of Medicine Perspective article titled “Open but Not Free – Publishing in the 21st Century".

Comprehensive Physiology indexed in PubMed/Medline

Comprehensive Physiology, the APS serial publication launched in January 2011 is now indexed in Medline/PubMed. Indexing will be retroactive to the first issue. The APS, Ron Terjung, Editor-in-Chief, and Wiley-Blackwell, publisher of the Journal on behalf of the APS, are delighted with this outstanding outcome.

1st PanAmerican Congress of Physiological Sciences 2014

The Scientific Programming Committee (SPC) for the 1st Pan-American Congress of Physiological Sciences invites submission of proposals for Plenary Lectures, Keynote Speakers and Symposia. The first historical meeting of physiologists from the three Americas will be held in the city of Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil from August 2-6, 2014. The theme for the Congress is “Physiology without Borders”.

County of San Diego California's Proclamation to APS

The County of San Diego California proclaimed April 21, 2012 to be "American Physiology Society Day" thoughtout San Diego County.

San Diego Mayor, Jerry Sanders, Extends Welcome to APS

San Diego Mayor Jerry Sanders extends a welcome to APS and issues a proclamation in recognition of the Society’s 125th anniversary, declaring April 21, 2012 to be “American Physiological Society Day” in the City of San Diego.

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