Lung Disease May Increase Risk of Insulin Resistance, Diabetes, Mouse Study Suggests
Numerous studies have identified obesity and poor diet as risk factors for insulin resistance and diabetes. Now, a new study adds another risk factor to the list: inflammatory lung disease. The article is published ahead-of-print in the AJP - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology.
Age, Not Post-Op Infection, More Important for Kidney Transplant Success, Study Finds
Infection by virus cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a major complication following kidney transplantation. CMV infection has been associated with increased kidney transplant failure and reduced patient survival. However, a new clinical study finds that age may be more important for long-term transplant and patient outcome.
For Veterans with Gulf War Illness, an Explanation for the Unexplainable Symptoms
One in four Gulf War veterans suffers from Gulf War Illness, a condition characterized by unexplainable chronic fatigue, muscle pain and cognitive dysfunction. New research finds for the first time direct evidence that the cells of Gulf War veterans cannot produce enough energy to run the body, explaining the fatigue and slow down of the body.
Mechanical Ventilators: From Breathing Help to Breathing Handicap
Mechanical ventilators are routinely used in both surgical and emergency situations every day in U.S. hospitals. Though often life saving in the short term, prolonged use of ventilators can lead to diaphragm weakness, and problems commonly arise—roughly 20 to 30 percent of the time—when weaning the patient off of the ventilator. In a new study, researchers at the University of Florida provide insights into what causes the weakness on a cellular level. Their result could lead to strategies that hospitals can use to help prevent ventilator-related diaphragm damage.
High-Intensity Training Delivers Results for Older Men—But Not for Older Women
High intensity training (HIT) is often recommended as a way to improve cardiovascular fitness in men and women, however, studies on these exercise regimens have focused on younger subjects. University of Copenhagen researchers looked at HIT effects in older males and females and found significant differences between men and women. They presented their results at the Physiological Bioenergetics conference in Tampa, Fla.
Chronic Drinking Disrupts Liver’s Circadian Clock, Contributes to Alcoholic Liver Disease
Staying on an internal schedule is important for health, and disease can occur if the body’s internal clock is disrupted. A new study reinforces the importance of circadian rhythm, reporting that chronic drinking contributes to alcoholic liver disease because it impairs the liver’s production schedule of molecules that power it to run.
Could the Bioenergetic Health Index Become the Next BMI?
A number of chronic diseases that have widespread effects on worldwide populations, such as cancer, neurodegeneration and cardio-metabolic syndromes, are known to have a connection to mitochondrial bioenergetics, the process by which cells create and use energy. “The bioenergetic health of an individual or group can serve as an early warning or the ‘canary in the coal mine’ to determine those with susceptibility to pathologies which stress the mitochondrion. It is clear that we urgently need new clinical tests to monitor changes in bioenergetics in patient populations,” said Victor Darley-Usmar of the University of Alabama at Birmingham and organizer for the “Physiological Bioenergetics: From Bench to Bedside” conference. The bioenergetic health index has the potential to be a new biomarker for assessing patient health for both prognostic and diagnostic value.
IV Administration of Endothelin B Receptor Drug Reduces Memory Loss, Oxidative Stress in Alzheimer’s Disease
An estimated 5.3 million people in the U.S. suffer from Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The five current FDA-approved AD medications only help mask the disease symptoms instead of treating the underlying disease. In a new study presented at the 14th International Conference on Endothelin: Physiology, Pathophysiology and Therapeutics, researchers used IRL-1620, a chemical that binds to endothelin B receptors, to treat AD in rats.
International Experts Talk Cancer, Sickle Cell, Diabetic Nephropathy Therapies at Endothelin Meeting in Savannah
Endothelin (ET) plays a role in many functions throughout the body, including blood vessel constriction and blood pressure regulation and in a number of disease pathologies. Insights gained through the study of ET have great therapeutic potential for health and disease. As ET experts convene for the 14th International Conference on Endothelin: Physiology, Pathophysiology and Therapeutics, the translational aspect of ET research will take center stage during the “Endothelin Therapeutics—Where Are We?” symposium.
Vitamin C: The Exercise Replacement?
Exercise improves health in overweight and obese adults but can be hard to incorporate into a daily routine. New findings show that taking vitamin C supplements daily instead can have similar cardiovascular benefits as regular exercise in these adults. This study will be presented at 14th International Conference on Endothelin: Physiology, Pathophysiology and Therapeutics in Savannah, Ga.
New Hope for Lou: Unexplored Therapeutic Targets for ALS
No cures exist for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and the only approved therapy slows the progression by only a few months. A new study identifies a promising unexplored avenue of treatment for ALS, the endothelin system. This study will be presented at 14th International Conference on Endothelin: Physiology, Pathophysiology and Therapeutics in Savannah, Ga.
One Protein, Many Fascinating Roles
Endothelin is a peptide produced by cells in the blood vessels and has powerful vessel-constricting effects. Although mainly associated with its role in blood pressure control and cardiovascular diseases, it continues to appear in other physiological functions and diseases. This symposium, taking place at 14th International Conference on Endothelin: Physiology, Pathophysiology and Therapeutics in Savannah, Ga., will discuss its roles in diabetes, cognitive decline, sickle cell disease and skin pigmentation.
CPAP Works: Common Sleep Apnea Treatment Reverses Brain Function Changes Associated with Heart Disease
CPAP machines are a common treatment for obstructive sleep apnea, but some people have a hard time adjusting and do not continue the treatment or are reluctant to start. A new study shows that CPAP is an effective sleep apnea treatment, finding that it reverses health changes that result in cardiovascular disease if the disorder is left untreated. This study is highlighted as one of this month’s “best of the best” as part of the APSselect program.
This Week’s Articles in PresS Highlights
Articles on the solution used to culture test-tube embryos and its role in future increased cardiovascular disease risk and the involvement of the Y chromosome in male disease and immune function are featured.
This Week’s Articles in PresS Highlights
New treatments for fibromyalgia and a dairy-derived protein discovered to be a prebiotic that holds promise for treating gastrointestinal conditions and obesity are featured this week.
New Research Shows Why Statins Should Be Viewed as a Double-Edged Sword
Statins have significant cardiovascular benefits, but also serious side effects. A new study finds that statin use impairs stem cell function, which helps in slowing atherosclerosis but hinders other body processes. Because of these effects, the study supports weighing individual risk when considering statins as a preventive measure.
Physiological Bioenergetics Meeting Focuses on Power Plant of Cells: The Mitochondria
The second in the APS fall conference series, this meeting will assemble cross-disciplinary experts who study mitochondrial function and its regulatory mechanisms, with a special emphasis on translational and physiological mechanisms
Endothelin-14 Conference to Present Cutting-Edge Therapeutic and Disease Findings
APS will host the 14th International Conference on Endothelin: Physiology, Pathophysiology and Therapeutics on September 2–5 in Savannah, Ga. The meeting will convene leading global researchers who study endothelin—a type of powerful peptide that constricts blood vessels, raises blood pressure and controls many other cellular functions throughout the body.
Resuming Exercise Soon After Heart Attack Can Improve Heart Recovery
Many lifestyle factors cause heart disease, and exercise may not be enough to prevent heart attacks. A new study shows that regular exercise can still benefit the heart after a heart attack occurs. This research is highlighted as one of this month’s “best of the best” as part of the American Physiological Society’s APSselect program.
This Week’s Articles in PresS Highlights
How the components of the Mediterranean lifestyle—with the exception of wine—work to combat cardiovascular disease risk and how drinking more beet juice can improve exercise performance and lengthen workouts are featured this week.
This Week’s Articles in PresS Highlights
The link between PTSD and cardiovascular disease and treating liver cirrhosis with diabetes drug metformin are featured this week.
Can Four Fish Oil Pills a Day Keep the Doctor Away? For Healthy Seniors, Perhaps
Omega-3 fish oil is a popular supplement because of its perceived cardiovascular benefits, but the scientific evidence has been conflicting. New research in Physiological Reports supports the claims for seniors, finding that healthy seniors who took omega-3 supplements every day had better cardiovascular health after 12 weeks of use.
July APSselect Research Highlights
Brown adipose transplantation reverses type 1 diabetes in mice; heme oxygenase system as a potential therapeutic strategy for cardiovascular diseases; benefits of caloric restriction for muscle metabolism and mass during middle age; muscle signature of a champion sprinter are among this month’s selected articles.
Electrical Nerve Stimulation Can Reverse Spinal Cord Injury Nerve Damage in Patients
Researchers find that nerve stimulation can improve the function of peripheral nerves damaged by spinal cord injury (SCI). This technique may be a new approach to preventing long-term changes in nerve and muscle function after SCI and improving SCI rehabilitation outcomes.This research is highlighted as one of this month’s “best of the best” as part of the American Physiological Society’s APSselect program.
Promising New NSAID-Derivative May Be Well-Tolerated by Chronic Pain Sufferers
Long-term use of naproxen (ALEVE), a type of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), is often prescribed for chronic pain conditions such as osteoarthritis. However, because of NSAID-related gastrointestinal problems including stomach and intestinal inflammation and ulcers, many are unable to tolerate ongoing use. A new study, published in the American Journal of Physiology–Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, finds that a naproxen-derivative may provide both symptom relief and gastrointestinal protection. The research is highlighted as one of this month’s “best of the best” as part of the American Physiological Society’s APSselect program.
Why the Bloating During Menopause? Blame the Hormones or the Lack of Them
Many women experience water retention and bloating when their hormone levels change, but how sex hormones affect water balance is not understood. A new study offers an explanation, finding that sex hormones can directly control how the body reabsorbs water.
Better than Stem Cells: Researchers Develop a Faster Way to Treat the Heart after a Heart Attack
For healing the heart after a heart attack, stem cell therapies show promise but are slow to implement. Researchers develop a new treatment called microsphere therapy that can be kept on-hand and administered more readily than stem cells.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Diabetes: Researchers Find Out Why the Two Are Linked
Nearly 50 percent of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) develop pre-diabetes or type 2 diabetes before the age of 40, but the reasons for the correlation was unclear. In a new study in the American Journal of Physiology–Endocrinology and Metabolism, researchers report that inflammation is the cause for the increased diabetes risk in women with PCOS.
E-Cigarette Vapor—Even when Nicotine-Free—Found to Damage Lung Cells
With the use of e-cigarettes on the rise, especially among young people, research to uncover the health effects of e-cigs is becoming increasingly important. In a new study published ahead of print in AJP-Lung, researchers find that e-cig solution and vapors—even those that are nicotine-free—damage lung health.
A New Use for Statins: Asthma
Researchers report that statins inhaled as a spray can treat symptoms of asthma. The findings support that statins should be explored as a new class of inhaler therapy for asthma.
APS Awards $446,000 to Its 2015 Undergraduate Research Fellows
APS awards $446,000 to its 2015 undergraduate research fellows to spend an average of 10 weeks in the laboratory of an established scientist and APS member.
The Burmese Python in Wonderland: How the Snake Grows and Shrinks after It Eats
The Burmese python's body and organs grow dramatically after it eats and then shrink after the meal is digested. This study is the first to link the extreme body changes directly to changes in gene expression and show how quickly gene expression shifts after the snake eats.
Cuban and American Physiological Societies Sign Historic Agreement for Research Collaboration
Leadership of the APS and the Cuban Society of Physiological Science met in Havana to sign an agreement for the exchange of scientific information and resources between the two organizations. This partnership fits as part of APS’s goal of sharing breaking physiological research and will also facilitate more global interactions among Cuban, American and other international physiologists.
Fish Oil May Help with Diabetic Neuropathy
New study reports that omega-3 fatty acids found in fish oil can slow or reverse nerve damage from diabetes.
Researchers Find Clues that May Predict Recovery Outcomes Following Total Hip Replacement
A cross-institutional team of researchers have identified a signaling substance (MuIS) that may predict patients who will have poor muscle regeneration outcomes following hip surgery. Testing patients for the presence of MuIS before surgery may help clinicians better plan for those who will need more intensive rehab post-surgery. This manuscript was chosen as an APSselect article for May.
New Hope for Short Bowel Syndrome
Researchers at Children’s Hospital Los Angeles have successfully made a small intestine that has the structural and molecular components of a healthy intestine. This article was chosen as an APSselect article for May.
Strength vs. Endurance: Does Exercise Type Matter in the Fight Against Obesity?
Researchers look at which form of exercise—strength, endurance or a combination of both—work best in tandem with diet to reduce weight and change body composition among obese study participants. Results are published in the Journal of Applied Physiology.
Making the Heart Beat with Ultrasonic Waves
Researchers from Drexel University demonstrate that ultrasound can increase the rate at which heart cells beat and describe the settings that can do so most effectively.
Caloric Restriction: A Fountain of Youth for Aging Muscles?
Caloric restriction has been studied as a way to increase longevity in animals. Now, researchers explore how it may positively affect muscle and find that aging muscles receive the most benefit.
Tumors Prefer the Easy Way Out
Researchers from Cornell University describe a new way cancer cells invade other parts of the body, identifying a new treatment target that may be more effective than current drugs.This article was chosen as an APSselect article for April.
NASA Astronaut-Scientists Speak at APS History of Physiology Group Symposium
Astronaut-scientists from the 1998 NASA STS-90 Neurolab space mission will discuss what they learned about how the brain and nervous system work without gravity.
On the Edge of Extinction: Tiny Pupfish Go without Breathing to Survive their Harsh Environment
The endangered desert pupfish has made itself at home in the harsh, hot environment of Death Valley hot springs by using a surprising evolutionary adaptation: They can go for up to five hours without oxygen. Research will be presented at the 2015 Experimental Biology Meeting in Boston on Tuesday, March 31.
Diet Rich in Methionine—Found Most Abundantly in Eggs, Fish and Meats—May Promote Memory Loss
Eating mostly protein in your diet? Research suggests a diet rich in eggs, fish and meats can lead to memory loss. Research will be presented at the 2015 Experimental Biology Meeting in Boston on Tuesday, March 31.
“Ice It.” Why the Ubiquitous Advice Isn’t Healing Your Injury
Does icing a serious bruise actually speed recovery time and assist in muscle repair? Researchers say no. Study results to be presented at the 2015 Experimental Biology Meeting in Boston on Monday, March 30.
Blueberries Show Promise as Treatment for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
Roughly 8 percent of people in the US suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). SSRIs, such as Zoloft and Paxil, are the only currently-approved therapy for PTSD, but their effectiveness is marginal. LSU researchers have found that blueberries could be an effective treatment. Research will be presented at the 2015 Experimental Biology Meeting in Boston on Monday, March 30.
Why Gastrointestinal Disorders Afflict Women More Often
Women are more likely to have irritable bowel syndrome and other gastrointestinal disorders than men. A new study suggests that it’s because the intestine’s nerve cells are more sluggish in women. Research will be presented at the 2015 Experimental Biology Meeting in Boston on Monday, March 30.
Sleep Apnea during Pregnancy Is Not Good for Mother or Baby
Having sleep apnea while pregnant could make the baby more prone to metabolic disease as an adult. Research will be presented at the 2015 Experimental Biology Meeting in Boston on Monday, March 30.
More Reasons Why Getting a Good Night's Sleep Is Important
Losing several hours of sleep can slow the body’s metabolism, but what about losing only a few hours? A new study finds that metabolic effects are seen even when sleep is shortened by two hours. Research will be presented at the 2015 Experimental Biology Meeting in Boston on Monday, March 30.
Nobel Laureate, Leading Experts Speak in APS President’s Symposium Series
APS President David M. Pollock, PhD, has organized a dynamic President’s Symposium Series for EB 2015. Focused on the theme “Physiology: Answers to Big Questions,” experts will discuss how physiology can uncover solutions for diabetes, obesity and hypertension. The series is anchored by Nobel Laureate Robert J. Lefkowitz, PhD.
APS Announces 2015 Society Lectureship Award Winners
Masashi Yanagisawa, MD, PhD, Babette B. LaMarca, PhD and Jennifer S. Pollock, PhD to be awarded prestigious APS honors at Experimental Biology 2015.
Cancer Drug Encourages Both Disease Regression and Loss of Taste
Researchers at the University of Michigan have identified the pathway responsible for taste changes among users of chemotherapy drugs that treat basal cell carcinoma. Manuscript was chosen as an APSselect article for March.
Older Adults: Double Your Protein to Build More Muscle
University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences researchers find that older adults may need to double up on the recommended daily allowance of protein to efficiently maintain and build muscle. The article is published in the AJP—Endocrinology and Metabolism and is highlighted as part of the APSselect program.
An Interview with APS Executive Director Martin Frank, PhD
Dr. Frank talks to International Innovation about the Society’s successes, focus on support for young and underrepresented researchers, the Living History project and the future of physiology.
Marion Siegman’s Living History
International Innovation highlights renowned smooth muscle physiologist (and APS member) Marion Siegman in their “Last Word” column. Using excerpts from her Living History of Physiology interview, Dr. Siegman recounts her early career experiences in research. This is the first of a two-part feature in the magazine.
Mind over Matter: Can You Think Your Way to Strength?
Ohio University researchers find that regular mental imagery exercises help preserve arm strength during 4 weeks of immobilization. The article is published in the Journal of Neurophysiology and is highlighted as part of the APSselect program.
Maternal Insulin Resistance Changes Pancreas, Increases Metabolic Disorders Risk in Offspring
Researchers from the Joslin Diabetes Center and the Department of Medicine at Harvard Medical School shed light on how changes to a mother’s metabolism lead to increased risk of insulin resistance, obesity and other problems in offspring.
Physiology Understanding Week 2014 Brings ‘PhUn’ to K–12 Students Across the U.S.
Physiologists from across the country will visit classrooms to lead students in interactive activities that demonstrate how their bodies function and teach how medical discoveries are made during PhUn Week 2014 (November 3–7).
Preventing Cardiovascular Disease in Old Aortas
Sargent College of Boston University researchers look for the root cause of age-related aortic stiffness—an early sign of cardiovascular disease—and uncover a potential therapeutic target for reducing or preventing its development. The article is published in AJP-Heart and Circulatory Physiology and is highlighted as part of the APSselect program.
APS News Update Special Edition: 2014 Awards Deadlines
As part of our mission to foster education, scientific research, and dissemination of information in the physiological sciences, APS hands out more than 100 awards in the field of physiology each year. Deadlines are fast approaching for a number of our awards.
Penguins Use Their Personalities to Prepare for Climate Change
Birds’ individual personalities may be among the factors that could improve its chances of successfully coping with environmental stressors. Research presented at the APS intersociety meeting “Comparative Approaches to Grand Challenges in Physiology.”
Responses to Global Change: Acclimatize, Adapt or Die
Human-driven climate change will put much of the Earth’s biodiversity at risk of extinction. This session will feature four presentations on how individual species are adapting to environmental changes. It will be presented on Tuesday, October 7, 2014 at the APS Intersociety meeting “Comparative Approaches to Grand Challenges in Physiology.”
Getting the Most out of Aquaculture: Pearls of Wisdom from Farmed Oysters
Australian researchers are fitting oysters with biosensors to measure how they respond to changing environmental conditions or stressors on aquaculture farms. Their results have implications for achieving and maintaining ideal conditions for targeted species in aquatic environments.
#CompPhys2014 Workshops Address Unconventional Careers in Science, Teaching in the IPhone Era
The APS meeting “Comparative Approaches to Grand Challenges in Physiology” will feature workshops addressing two challenges facing physiologists today: finding a job and teaching physiology in the age of the smartphone.
Why Wet Feels Wet: Understanding the Illusion of Wetness
Though it seems simple, feeling that something is wet is quite a feat because our skin does not have receptors that sense wetness. UK researchers propose that wetness perception is intertwined with our ability to sense cold temperature and tactile sensations such as pressure and texture.
Animal Physiology: A Looking Glass into Health, Disease and Environmental Adaptation
New research, featured symposia and information on plenary sessions and workshops to be presented at the 2014 Comparative Approaches to Grand Challenges in Physiology meeting in San Diego. View the full meeting program at http://ow.ly/BEI2K.
APS Signs on to Pilot SocialCite Metrics Tool for Scientific Citations
APS is excited to be one of four publishers participating in the pilot program for SocialCite - a new tool that tracks and measures the quality of scientific article citations. The Genetics Society of America, The Rockefeller University Press, and the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences are also pilot publishers.
Sad News, Death of Bill Stanley, EIC, AJP-Heart
It is with great sadness that we announce the death of Bill Stanley, Editor-in-Chief of AJP-Heart in Sydney, Australia. Bill’s death was very sudden and the news is shocking. Bill was a passionate and innovative leader of AJP-Heart, and the Journal editors and staff will ensure that his work on the journal continues without pause. We express our deepest condolences to his family.
Inaugural Outstanding Junior Investigator Award
AJP-Lung is delighted to announce that we received nineteen nominations for papers on all aspects of lung biology.
APS Executive Director shares his views on open access in the New England Journal of Medicine
APS Executive Director shares his views on open access in a New England Journal of Medicine Perspective article titled “Open but Not Free – Publishing in the 21st Century".
Comprehensive Physiology indexed in PubMed/Medline
Comprehensive Physiology, the APS serial publication launched in January 2011 is now indexed in Medline/PubMed. Indexing will be retroactive to the first issue. The APS, Ron Terjung, Editor-in-Chief, and Wiley-Blackwell, publisher of the Journal on behalf of the APS, are delighted with this outstanding outcome.
1st PanAmerican Congress of Physiological Sciences 2014
The Scientific Programming Committee (SPC) for the 1st Pan-American Congress of Physiological Sciences invites submission of proposals for Plenary Lectures, Keynote Speakers and Symposia. The first historical meeting of physiologists from the three Americas will be held in the city of Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil from August 2-6, 2014. The theme for the Congress is “Physiology without Borders”.
County of San Diego California's Proclamation to APS
The County of San Diego California proclaimed April 21, 2012 to be "American Physiology Society Day" thoughtout San Diego County.
San Diego Mayor, Jerry Sanders, Extends Welcome to APS
San Diego Mayor Jerry Sanders extends a welcome to APS and issues a proclamation in recognition of the Society’s 125th anniversary, declaring April 21, 2012 to be “American Physiological Society Day” in the City of San Diego.