More than Just Eyes and Skin: Vitamin A Affects the Heart
Vitamin A is important for heart development in embryos, but whether it has a role in maintaining heart health is unclear. A new study in the American Journal of Physiology—Heart and Circulatory Physiology finds that the heart is able to respond to vitamin A and the amount of vitamin A present has an effect. However, whether the effects are beneficial or harmful is still a mystery.
Jane Reckelhoff, PhD, Becomes 89th President of the American Physiological Society
Jane Reckelhoff, PhD, was installed as APS president in April, immediately following the APS annual meeting at Experimental Biology 2016. Reckelhoff is a Billy S. Guyton Distinguished Professor, director of the Women’s Health Research Center, director of research development for the Office of Research and Sponsored Programs and professor of physiology and biophysics at the University of Mississippi Medical Center.
New Officers Join Leadership of the American Physiological Society
APS is pleased to introduce the new members of its leadership: President Elect Dennis Brown, PhD, and Councilors Jennifer S. Pollock, PhD; Willis K. Samson, PhD; and Harold D. Schultz, PhD. The new officers were elected by the APS membership and took office in April at the Experimental Biology meeting in San Diego.
Health Improvements after Gastric-Bypass Surgery Start Well before Dramatic Weight Loss Begins
New research presented at the Experimental Biology 2016 meeting suggests that fat and blood sugar control and cardiovascular health start improving in the early stages of recovery before dramatic weight loss occurs.
Move Over, Polar Bear Plunge: Ice Swimming Is Next Big Extreme Winter Water Sport
Hundreds of athletes around the globe are competing in one-mile ice swims. Performance and human physiological response in water 5 degrees Celsius or less has not been well-studied. Researchers will present new data on how age, gender and environmental factors such as wind chill affect ice swimming performance at Experimental Biology 2016.
The Down Side of Your Sweet and Salty Addiction: Rapid Onset High Blood Pressure?
High levels of fructose similar to amounts consumed within the American diet may predispose individuals to fast-onset, salt-sensitive hypertension, according to New research presented at the Experimental Biology 2016 meeting in San Diego.
Exercise Reduces Cardiovascular Risk Factors from Constant Stress
Constant stress is associated with signs of poor blood vessel health and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. New research presented at the Experimental Biology 2016 meeting in San Diego finds that aerobic exercise kept the blood vessels of stressed rats working normally.
Fat Stunts Growth of Tobacco Hornworm Caterpillars
Tobacco hornworm caterpillars eating a high-fat diet are smaller than their counterparts eating a medium- or low-fat diet. New research presented at the Experimental Biology 2016 meeting found that fat decreased the caterpillars’ food consumption, leading to the smaller body size.
Do More Uphill Sprints! Higher Anaerobic Fitness Gives Edge to Mountain Ultra-Marathon Runners
New research presented at the Experimental Biology 2016 meeting suggests a runner’s pre-race anaerobic fitness capacity may be a key factor in determining who will have the fastest finishing times during grueling 50 km (31 mile) mountain ultramarathons.
Genetically Modified Mouse’s Brain Lights Up As It Thinks
Scientists have developed a genetically modified mouse with brain cells that light up when active. The new mouse will allow scientists to see how the brain processes information. This study is published in Journal of Neurophysiology and is highlighted as one of this month’s “best of the best” as part of the American Physiological Society’s APSselect program.
APS 2016 Distinguished Lectureship Award Winners to Present Talks at Experimental Biology
APS is pleased to recognize the outstanding honorees who will present their award lectures at the Experimental Biology 2016 meeting in San Diego.
Nobel Laureate, Leading Experts Speak in APS President’s Symposium Series
Leading research experts will discuss the physiology behind organ injury in alcohol abuse, the health impacts of diet, and adaptations to stress as part of the President's Symposium Series at the Experimental Biology 2016 meeting in San Diego. The series is anchored with the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Lecture by Nobel Laureate Roger Tsien, PhD.
The Brain May Show Signs of Aging Earlier than Old Age
A new study published in Physiological Genomics suggests that the brain shows signs of aging earlier than old age. The study found that the microglia cells—the immune cells of the brain—in middle-aged mice already showed altered activity seen in microglia from older mice.
Review Article Uncovers Clues to the Causes, Risk Factors for and Prevention of Drowning Deaths
An international team of researchers have published an extensive review of scientific literature on factors involved drowning fatalities in the journal Physiology. They outline how the fear of drowning, fitness level, fatigue, intoxication and other factors can contribute to negative outcomes and highlight warnings for people who may be at increased risk of drowning, such as those with heart conditions.
Meet Your New APS Officers
The votes have been counted and the 2016 APS election results are in! Meet our new president-elect and councilors in the March edition of The Physiologist.
Turning on Blood Flow Turns on Fat-Burning Brown Fat in Mice
Increasing the blood flow in brown fat causes it to burn more calories in mice and may help treat obesity, a new study in the Journal of Applied Physiology reports. This research is highlighted as one of this month’s “best of the best” as part of the American Physiological Society’s APSselect program.
Aging May Worsen the Effects of a High-Salt Diet
Age significantly impaired the ability of rats to get rid of excess sodium when exposed to a high-salt diet, according to research published in the American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. Findings could have implications for salt consumption in the elderly; suggest older people could be at greater risk for the negative consequences of eating a high-salt diet.
Rat Study Shows that Renal Denervation Helps to Bring Drug-Resistant Hypertension under Control
Most clinical studies have shown that renal denervation—a procedure that disrupts the nerves in the kidneys and prevents them from relaying signals—can treat drug-resistant hypertension, although a number have shown the procedure to be ineffective. A new study in the American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology supports that renal denervation can treat hypertension and suggests that failures may be due to incomplete procedure. This research is highlighted as one of this month’s “best of the best” as part of the American Physiological Society’s APSselect program.
Small Reduction in Food Intake May Be Enough to Slow Polycystic Kidney Disease
A small reduction in food intake—less than required to cause weight loss—dramatically slowed the development of a common genetic disorder called autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in mice, a new study in the American Journal of Physiology—Renal Physiology reports. There are no approved treatments for ADPKD in the U.S., and food reduction would be an ideal therapy because it most likely does not have side effects and is cost-effective, says the lead author.
Study May Explain Why Stroke Risk in Women Changes after Menopause
Overactive microglia—the brain’s immune cells—may worsen the damage from brain injury after stroke or head impact. A new study in the American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism reports that a compound produced from estrogen called 2-methoxyestradiol calms overactive microglia. The findings offer an explanation for why stroke risk in women changes after menopause and point to potential treatments for treating brain injuries in men and women.
Not the Weaker Sex: Estrogen Protects Women against the Flu, Study Finds
A new study published in the American Journal of Physiology—Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology finds that the female sex hormone estrogen has anti-viral effects against the influenza A virus, commonly known as the flu. The study supports why the flu may hit men harder than women.
Beyond Dance: Ballet Training Improves Muscle Coordination in Everyday Activities
A new study in the Journal of Neurophysiology reports that professional ballet dancers have more control over their muscles than individuals with no dance training. This research is highlighted as one of this month’s “best of the best” as part of the American Physiological Society’s APSselect program.
Still a Champion Runner at 80: Do Elite Athletes Have an Anti-Aging Secret in Their Muscles?
Elite runners do not experience the muscle weakening associated with aging as non-athletes do. A new study published in American Journal of Physiology—Cell Physiology examines if their superb fitness is because their muscles have not aged.
Carbs, Not Fats, Boost Half-Marathon Race Performance, Study Finds
Recent studies have proposed that burning fat instead of carbohydrates will improve exercise performance because the body's fat reserve is much larger than its carbohydrates reserve. A new study in Journal of Applied Physiology reports the opposite, finding that muscles rely on carbohydrates as their fuel source during prolonged exercise.
Study Links Environmental and Lifestyle Factors to Reproductive Problems, Infertility in Men
Environmental and lifestyle factors are damaging men’s reproductive health and may be playing a large role in decreasing fertility rates in industrialized countries, a new study in Physiological Reviews reports. Socioeconomic influences and female reproductive health cannot solely be blamed for higher incidences of infertility, the study supports.
Study Suggests New Strategy for Treating Rare Neurodegenerative Disorder Menkes Disease
Menkes disease arises from dysfunction in ATP7A, a protein that transports copper to cells, leading to brain development complications. Introducing working versions of ATP7A in the brain is considered the most direct therapeutic approach. However, a new study in AJP-Cell suggests that functioning ATP7A located elsewhere in the body, not necessarily the entire brain, can help treat the disorder. This research is highlighted as one of this month’s “best of the best” as part of the American Physiological Society’s APSselect program.
When Exercise Is Unhealthy for the Heart: Researchers Describe How Heart Problems and Sudden Cardiac Death Occur with Endurance Exercise
Endurance exercise accelerates the development of heart problems in individuals with a particular genetic mutation, a new study finds. In mice with a mutated version of desmoplakin, a protein that maintains the heart wall, exercise made the heart walls come apart sooner. The findings offer insight into how to best manage exercise in individuals with the mutation.
New Biomarker Predicts Development of Preeclampsia at Six Weeks of Pregnancy
Preeclampsia is generally diagnosed later in pregnancy, but new research reports that the protein copeptin can predict the development of preeclampsia as early as six weeks of gestation. The findings could lead to diagnosis of the disorder in the first trimester, improving care and potentially leading to the development of preventative measures.
Children Born to Women after Bariatric Surgery at Higher Risk of Obesity, Diabetes
Weight-loss surgery can boost fertility in women and reduce the risk of pregnancy complications that commonly occur in obese women. However, a new study in rats suggests that weight-loss surgery alters mothers’ hormone and chemical balance, which harms offspring during gestation and later in life.
Sex Reassignment Surgery May Be Better for Transgender Women’s Health than Hormones Only
Transgender women may be at a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes compared with men and women in the general population. New research finds that transgender women who received only hormone therapy had poorer metabolic health than transgender women who underwent sex reassignment surgery in addition to receiving hormone therapy, suggesting that sex reassignment surgery may be metabolically protective.
Is Testosterone Therapy Safe?
The increasing use of testosterone replacement therapy to treat reduced testosterone level in older men has been accompanied by growing concerns over its long-term safety. Two studies examining the health risks of receiving testosterone will be presented at Cardiovascular, Renal and Metabolic Diseases: Physiology and Gender conference, supporting opposite conclusions regarding risks.
Male Hormone Testosterone Cause of Sex Differences in Parkinson’s Disease Risk, Study Suggests
Men are twice as likely as women to develop Parkinson’s disease. New research suggests that testosterone enhances the susceptibility of brain cells that control movement to damage from chemical imbalances, explaining the sex differences in the occurrence of Parkinson’s.
Genes May Determine the Side Effects of Menopausal Hormone Therapy, Study Suggests
Cardiovascular disease risk in women increases after menopause and is associated with the drop in estrogen levels. Menopausal hormone therapy could slow the progression, but oral formulations also increase the risk of blood clots. A new study reports that whether a woman will obtain cardiovascular benefits from certain types of hormone therapy may depend on her genes.
Diet Lacking Soluble Fiber Promotes Weight Gain, Mouse Study Suggests
A new study in American Journal of Physiology--Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology highlights the importance of the gut microbiome in maintaining intestinal and metabolic health and suggests that eating more foods high in soluble fiber may help prevent metabolic disease and obesity. This research is highlighted as one of this month’s “best of the best” as part of the American Physiological Society’s APSselect program.
Novo Nordisk Foundation Continues Support of APS Awards
The Foundation will provide $100,000 over five years toward August Krogh Lecture and Bodil Schmidt-Nielsen Award. The awards are named in honor of physiologists August Krogh and Bodil Schmidt-Nielsen, who have made significant contributions to the field and also have unique ties to the Novo Nordisk Foundation and The American Physiological Society.
Clumsy? Ballet Might Help
Study in professional ballet dancers finds that ballet training may improve balance and coordination in daily activities.
New Study Explains Why You Bulk Up with Resistance Training, Not Endurance Training
Research published in Physiological Reports shows that resistance and endurance exercises activate the same gene, PGC-1a, but the processes stimulated for the muscles to adapt depend on the exercise type. The study offers insight into why the physical changes from resistance exercise are so different than from endurance exercise.
Physiology and Gender Conference to Present Latest Research on Sex Differences in Disease Risk
APS will host the Cardiovascular, Renal and Metabolic Diseases: Physiology and Gender conference Nov. 17–20, in Annapolis, Md. This meeting will bring together leading scientists studying the influence of sex and gender on cardiovascular, kidney and metabolic health and disease.
Gastric Bypass Surgery Improves Blood Sugar Handling and Insulin Sensitivity, Study Finds
Gastric bypass surgery can lead to remission of type 2 diabetes along with weight loss. A new study examines why, finding that insulin sensitivity of the body's main glucose (sugar) storage sites improve after gastric bypass surgery.
Lung Disease May Increase Risk of Insulin Resistance, Diabetes, Mouse Study Suggests
Numerous studies have identified obesity and poor diet as risk factors for insulin resistance and diabetes. Now, a new study adds another risk factor to the list: inflammatory lung disease. The article is published ahead-of-print in the AJP - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology.
Age, Not Post-Op Infection, More Important for Kidney Transplant Success, Study Finds
Infection by virus cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a major complication following kidney transplantation. CMV infection has been associated with increased kidney transplant failure and reduced patient survival. However, a new clinical study finds that age may be more important for long-term transplant and patient outcome.
For Veterans with Gulf War Illness, an Explanation for the Unexplainable Symptoms
One in four Gulf War veterans suffers from Gulf War Illness, a condition characterized by unexplainable chronic fatigue, muscle pain and cognitive dysfunction. New research finds for the first time direct evidence that the cells of Gulf War veterans cannot produce enough energy to run the body, explaining the fatigue and slow down of the body.
Mechanical Ventilators: From Breathing Help to Breathing Handicap
Mechanical ventilators are routinely used in both surgical and emergency situations every day in U.S. hospitals. Though often life saving in the short term, prolonged use of ventilators can lead to diaphragm weakness, and problems commonly arise—roughly 20 to 30 percent of the time—when weaning the patient off of the ventilator. In a new study, researchers at the University of Florida provide insights into what causes the weakness on a cellular level. Their result could lead to strategies that hospitals can use to help prevent ventilator-related diaphragm damage.
High-Intensity Training Delivers Results for Older Men—But Not for Older Women
High intensity training (HIT) is often recommended as a way to improve cardiovascular fitness in men and women, however, studies on these exercise regimens have focused on younger subjects. University of Copenhagen researchers looked at HIT effects in older males and females and found significant differences between men and women. They presented their results at the Physiological Bioenergetics conference in Tampa, Fla.
Chronic Drinking Disrupts Liver’s Circadian Clock, Contributes to Alcoholic Liver Disease
Staying on an internal schedule is important for health, and disease can occur if the body’s internal clock is disrupted. A new study reinforces the importance of circadian rhythm, reporting that chronic drinking contributes to alcoholic liver disease because it impairs the liver’s production schedule of molecules that power it to run.
Could the Bioenergetic Health Index Become the Next BMI?
A number of chronic diseases that have widespread effects on worldwide populations, such as cancer, neurodegeneration and cardio-metabolic syndromes, are known to have a connection to mitochondrial bioenergetics, the process by which cells create and use energy. “The bioenergetic health of an individual or group can serve as an early warning or the ‘canary in the coal mine’ to determine those with susceptibility to pathologies which stress the mitochondrion. It is clear that we urgently need new clinical tests to monitor changes in bioenergetics in patient populations,” said Victor Darley-Usmar of the University of Alabama at Birmingham and organizer for the “Physiological Bioenergetics: From Bench to Bedside” conference. The bioenergetic health index has the potential to be a new biomarker for assessing patient health for both prognostic and diagnostic value.
IV Administration of Endothelin B Receptor Drug Reduces Memory Loss, Oxidative Stress in Alzheimer’s Disease
An estimated 5.3 million people in the U.S. suffer from Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The five current FDA-approved AD medications only help mask the disease symptoms instead of treating the underlying disease. In a new study presented at the 14th International Conference on Endothelin: Physiology, Pathophysiology and Therapeutics, researchers used IRL-1620, a chemical that binds to endothelin B receptors, to treat AD in rats.
International Experts Talk Cancer, Sickle Cell, Diabetic Nephropathy Therapies at Endothelin Meeting in Savannah
Endothelin (ET) plays a role in many functions throughout the body, including blood vessel constriction and blood pressure regulation and in a number of disease pathologies. Insights gained through the study of ET have great therapeutic potential for health and disease. As ET experts convene for the 14th International Conference on Endothelin: Physiology, Pathophysiology and Therapeutics, the translational aspect of ET research will take center stage during the “Endothelin Therapeutics—Where Are We?” symposium.
Vitamin C: The Exercise Replacement?
Exercise improves health in overweight and obese adults but can be hard to incorporate into a daily routine. New findings show that taking vitamin C supplements daily instead can have similar cardiovascular benefits as regular exercise in these adults. This study will be presented at 14th International Conference on Endothelin: Physiology, Pathophysiology and Therapeutics in Savannah, Ga.
New Hope for Lou: Unexplored Therapeutic Targets for ALS
No cures exist for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and the only approved therapy slows the progression by only a few months. A new study identifies a promising unexplored avenue of treatment for ALS, the endothelin system. This study will be presented at 14th International Conference on Endothelin: Physiology, Pathophysiology and Therapeutics in Savannah, Ga.
One Protein, Many Fascinating Roles
Endothelin is a peptide produced by cells in the blood vessels and has powerful vessel-constricting effects. Although mainly associated with its role in blood pressure control and cardiovascular diseases, it continues to appear in other physiological functions and diseases. This symposium, taking place at 14th International Conference on Endothelin: Physiology, Pathophysiology and Therapeutics in Savannah, Ga., will discuss its roles in diabetes, cognitive decline, sickle cell disease and skin pigmentation.
CPAP Works: Common Sleep Apnea Treatment Reverses Brain Function Changes Associated with Heart Disease
CPAP machines are a common treatment for obstructive sleep apnea, but some people have a hard time adjusting and do not continue the treatment or are reluctant to start. A new study shows that CPAP is an effective sleep apnea treatment, finding that it reverses health changes that result in cardiovascular disease if the disorder is left untreated. This study is highlighted as one of this month’s “best of the best” as part of the APSselect program.
This Week’s Articles in PresS Highlights
Articles on the solution used to culture test-tube embryos and its role in future increased cardiovascular disease risk and the involvement of the Y chromosome in male disease and immune function are featured.
This Week’s Articles in PresS Highlights
New treatments for fibromyalgia and a dairy-derived protein discovered to be a prebiotic that holds promise for treating gastrointestinal conditions and obesity are featured this week.
New Research Shows Why Statins Should Be Viewed as a Double-Edged Sword
Statins have significant cardiovascular benefits, but also serious side effects. A new study finds that statin use impairs stem cell function, which helps in slowing atherosclerosis but hinders other body processes. Because of these effects, the study supports weighing individual risk when considering statins as a preventive measure.
Physiological Bioenergetics Meeting Focuses on Power Plant of Cells: The Mitochondria
The second in the APS fall conference series, this meeting will assemble cross-disciplinary experts who study mitochondrial function and its regulatory mechanisms, with a special emphasis on translational and physiological mechanisms
Endothelin-14 Conference to Present Cutting-Edge Therapeutic and Disease Findings
APS will host the 14th International Conference on Endothelin: Physiology, Pathophysiology and Therapeutics on September 2–5 in Savannah, Ga. The meeting will convene leading global researchers who study endothelin—a type of powerful peptide that constricts blood vessels, raises blood pressure and controls many other cellular functions throughout the body.
Resuming Exercise Soon After Heart Attack Can Improve Heart Recovery
Many lifestyle factors cause heart disease, and exercise may not be enough to prevent heart attacks. A new study shows that regular exercise can still benefit the heart after a heart attack occurs. This research is highlighted as one of this month’s “best of the best” as part of the American Physiological Society’s APSselect program.
This Week’s Articles in PresS Highlights
How the components of the Mediterranean lifestyle—with the exception of wine—work to combat cardiovascular disease risk and how drinking more beet juice can improve exercise performance and lengthen workouts are featured this week.
This Week’s Articles in PresS Highlights
The link between PTSD and cardiovascular disease and treating liver cirrhosis with diabetes drug metformin are featured this week.
Can Four Fish Oil Pills a Day Keep the Doctor Away? For Healthy Seniors, Perhaps
Omega-3 fish oil is a popular supplement because of its perceived cardiovascular benefits, but the scientific evidence has been conflicting. New research in Physiological Reports supports the claims for seniors, finding that healthy seniors who took omega-3 supplements every day had better cardiovascular health after 12 weeks of use.
July APSselect Research Highlights
Brown adipose transplantation reverses type 1 diabetes in mice; heme oxygenase system as a potential therapeutic strategy for cardiovascular diseases; benefits of caloric restriction for muscle metabolism and mass during middle age; muscle signature of a champion sprinter are among this month’s selected articles.
Electrical Nerve Stimulation Can Reverse Spinal Cord Injury Nerve Damage in Patients
Researchers find that nerve stimulation can improve the function of peripheral nerves damaged by spinal cord injury (SCI). This technique may be a new approach to preventing long-term changes in nerve and muscle function after SCI and improving SCI rehabilitation outcomes.This research is highlighted as one of this month’s “best of the best” as part of the American Physiological Society’s APSselect program.
Promising New NSAID-Derivative May Be Well-Tolerated by Chronic Pain Sufferers
Long-term use of naproxen (ALEVE), a type of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), is often prescribed for chronic pain conditions such as osteoarthritis. However, because of NSAID-related gastrointestinal problems including stomach and intestinal inflammation and ulcers, many are unable to tolerate ongoing use. A new study, published in the American Journal of Physiology–Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, finds that a naproxen-derivative may provide both symptom relief and gastrointestinal protection. The research is highlighted as one of this month’s “best of the best” as part of the American Physiological Society’s APSselect program.
E-Cigarette Vapor—Even when Nicotine-Free—Found to Damage Lung Cells
With the use of e-cigarettes on the rise, especially among young people, research to uncover the health effects of e-cigs is becoming increasingly important. In a new study published ahead of print in AJP-Lung, researchers find that e-cig solution and vapors—even those that are nicotine-free—damage lung health.
APS Awards $446,000 to Its 2015 Undergraduate Research Fellows
APS awards $446,000 to its 2015 undergraduate research fellows to spend an average of 10 weeks in the laboratory of an established scientist and APS member.
Sad News, Death of Bill Stanley, EIC, AJP-Heart
It is with great sadness that we announce the death of Bill Stanley, Editor-in-Chief of AJP-Heart in Sydney, Australia. Bill’s death was very sudden and the news is shocking. Bill was a passionate and innovative leader of AJP-Heart, and the Journal editors and staff will ensure that his work on the journal continues without pause. We express our deepest condolences to his family.
Inaugural Outstanding Junior Investigator Award
AJP-Lung is delighted to announce that we received nineteen nominations for papers on all aspects of lung biology.
APS Executive Director shares his views on open access in the New England Journal of Medicine
APS Executive Director shares his views on open access in a New England Journal of Medicine Perspective article titled “Open but Not Free – Publishing in the 21st Century".
Comprehensive Physiology indexed in PubMed/Medline
Comprehensive Physiology, the APS serial publication launched in January 2011 is now indexed in Medline/PubMed. Indexing will be retroactive to the first issue. The APS, Ron Terjung, Editor-in-Chief, and Wiley-Blackwell, publisher of the Journal on behalf of the APS, are delighted with this outstanding outcome.
1st PanAmerican Congress of Physiological Sciences 2014
The Scientific Programming Committee (SPC) for the 1st Pan-American Congress of Physiological Sciences invites submission of proposals for Plenary Lectures, Keynote Speakers and Symposia. The first historical meeting of physiologists from the three Americas will be held in the city of Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil from August 2-6, 2014. The theme for the Congress is “Physiology without Borders”.
County of San Diego California's Proclamation to APS
The County of San Diego California proclaimed April 21, 2012 to be "American Physiology Society Day" thoughtout San Diego County.
San Diego Mayor, Jerry Sanders, Extends Welcome to APS
San Diego Mayor Jerry Sanders extends a welcome to APS and issues a proclamation in recognition of the Society’s 125th anniversary, declaring April 21, 2012 to be “American Physiological Society Day” in the City of San Diego.