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Exercise Nerve Response in Type 1 Diabetes Worsens over Time

A new study finds that late-stage type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) weakens the autonomic reflex that regulates blood pressure during exercise, impairing circulation, nerve function and exercise tolerance. The study is published in the American Journal of Physiology—Heart and Circulatory Physiology.

Children with ADHD Likely to Have Touch-Processing Abnormalities

Children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) are likely to also have trouble with touch (tactile) processing. A new study finds that children with ADHD fare worse on several tests of tactile functioning, including reaction time and detecting a weak stimulus on the skin (detection threshold). The article, published ahead of print in the Journal of Neurophysiology, was chosen as an APSselect article for October.

Scientists Find New RNA Class in Kidneys Is Linked to Hypertension

Researchers from the University of Toledo (Ohio) College of Medicine and Life Sciences have discovered more than 12,000 different types of noncoding RNA (circRNAs) in the kidney tissue of rats. This type of genetic material, previously thought to have no function, may play a significant role in regulating blood pressure in heart and kidney disease. The article, published in Physiological Genomics, was chosen as an APSselect article for October.

Review Study Explores Causes of Physical Inactivity

A new review of more than 500 studies examines the environmental and physiological causes of physical inactivity and the role it plays in the development of chronic disease. The article is published in Physiological Reviews.

Get Fewer Antioxidants? Lower Levels May Lessen Damage from Colitis

A new study finds that lowering the levels of an antioxidant in the colon has an unexpectedly positive effect on gastrointestinal (GI) inflammation. The paper is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology.

APS Establishes Hurricane Relief Fund to Support Researchers Following Devastating Hurricane Season

APS has allocated $100,000 for a Hurricane Relief Fund to assist young APS member-researchers in their rebuilding efforts following Hurricanes Harvey, Irma and Maria. Applications are now being accepted for grants of up to $2,000 which are intended to help graduate students and postdoctoral fellows impacted by the storms to replace belongings, pay for relocation costs and get back on their feet.

Preemies’ Separation from Mom + Physical Stress May Increase Health Risks in Adulthood

A new study suggests that physiological stress in premature infants combined with separation from their mothers may have lasting effects into adulthood. In clinical studies, these factors have been found to increase the risk of obesity and insulin resistance, leading to metabolic disorders such as metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The study is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology.

Electrical Stimulation Improves Paralyzed Patients’ Function

Nearly 282,000 people in the U.S. live with paralysis following a spinal cord injury (SCI). A review of more than 90 studies found that electrical stimulation may help restore function in those paralyzed after SCI. The article is published in Physiology.

New Generation Drugs May Hold Key to Alternative Erectile Dysfunction Treatment

Close to 70 percent of men with erectile dysfunction (ED) respond to the ED drug sildenafil. However, only about 50 percent of men with diabetes—a population commonly affected by ED—achieve positive results with sildenafil. Researchers from the Smooth Muscle Research Centre at the Dundalk Institute of Technology, in Dundalk, Ireland, are studying two new drugs that may give men with diabetes—and others for whom conventional treatment is ineffective—new hope for treating ED. The article is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Cell Physiology.

Young and Female: A Good Combination for Kidney Health?

Young females may have the greatest level of protection against acute kidney injury (AKI) caused by the chemotherapy drug Cisplatin, commonly used to treat lung, ovarian, bladder and stomach cancer. Nearly a third of all people who are treated with Cisplatin develop AKI. The study—the first to investigate combined sex and age differences in the response to kidney injury—is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Renal Physiology and was chosen as an APSselect article for September.

Turning Up the Heat Could Aid the Treatment of Cancer, Organ Transplant and Autoimmune Diseases

Heat therapy may be a promising treatment in the fight against cancer, autoimmune problems and efforts to avoid organ rejection in transplant patients, according to researchers at the University of Kentucky. The research team exposed colorectal cancer cells and T-cells to temperatures lower and higher than normal body temperatures to observe the effects of temperature change on cellular energy production. They found that heat exposure can slow cancer cell growth and activate T-cells to fight infection. They will present their findings at the Physiological Bioenergetics: Mitochondria from Bench to Bedside conference in San Diego.

Turtles May Hold the Key to Protecting Human Hearts after Heart Attack

In humans, going just minutes without oxygen—such as during a heart attack or stroke—can cause devastating damage to the heart. Conversely, freshwater turtles hibernate for months at the bottom of frozen lakes and awake with no heart damage in the spring. Researchers at Aarhus University in Denmark and the University of Cambridge in the U.K. are looking to these turtles to understand the mechanisms that protect them from heart damage. “We investigated whether turtles may avoid oxidative damage in the heart after winter hibernation by specifically inhibiting the mitochondrial protein complex I, which is responsible for the production of ROS,” Amanda Bundgård, lead author of the study, explained. The research team will present their findings at the Physiological Bioenergetics: Mitochondria from Bench to Bedside conference in San Diego.

Calorie Reduction + Exercise = Better Muscle Function in Older Adults

Improved muscle performance starts with better mitochondrial function. Older adults who are overweight may improve their muscle function with a weight loss program that combines exercise and calorie reduction, according to researchers from Florida Hospital, who present their findings today at the Physiological Bioenergetics: Mitochondria from Bench to Bedside conference in San Diego.

Taking It to the Clinic: Using Mitochondria to Diagnose Disease

Leading researchers will discuss advances in understanding the role of mitochondria in health and disease and the use of the “powerhouse of the cell” as a clinical diagnostic tool during the “Translating the Mitochondria—Taking It to the Clinic” symposium at the American Physiological Society’s (APS’s) Physiological Bioenergetics: Mitochondria from Bench to Bedside conference.

Mom’s, Not Dad’s, Mitochondria Create Healthy Embryos

Mammal embryos shed paternal mitochondria within days of fertilization, perhaps to ensure the offspring a healthy life, a new study shows. Researchers from the California Institute of Technology will present their findings today at the Physiological Bioenergetics: Mitochondria from Bench to Bedside conference in San Diego.

Playing the Publishing ‘Game’: Making the Most of Reviewers’ Comments

Reviewer comments on a scientific manuscript may seem critical and personal to authors, but they are generally well thought out and meant to enhance the understandability and integrity of the paper. Douglas Curran-Everett, PhD, editor-in-chief of Advances in Physiology Education, acknowledges the challenges of receiving review comments and offers tips to achieving more positive outcomes when submitting scientific manuscripts.

Using Facebook to Supplement Neuroscience Studies Boosts Students’ Grades

Some Saudi Arabian medical students are using Facebook as both an outlet for social networking and an effective learning tool. The study is published ahead of print in Advances in Physiology Education.

High Achievers in Competitive Courses More Likely to Cheat on College Exams

A new study finds that students who are known as “high achievers” and take highly competitive courses are the most likely to cheat on their exams. The article is published ahead of print in Advances in Physiology Education.

Leading Experts Explore the Clinical, Translational Applications of Mitochondria

Cross-disciplinary experts who study the mitochondria will convene at the APS “Physiological Bioenergetics: Mitochondria from Bench to Bedside” conference August 27–30 in San Diego. “While mitochondria are traditionally known as the powerhouse of the cell, accumulating studies demonstrate that the shape, movement and function of these organelles control much more in the cell beyond energy levels,” Sruti Shiva, PhD, researcher at the University of Pittsburgh and chair of the conference organizing committee, said.

miRNA Could Be Key in Predicting Atrial Fibrillation Risk Following Surgery

One in three patients who undergo cardiac surgery—such as coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) or heart valve procedures—experience an irregular heartbeat after surgery (postoperative atrial fibrillation or PoAF). Researchers at Aurora Research Institute and Aurora Cardiovascular Services in Milwaukee have identified a molecule that can be measured with a noninvasive blood test to help predict the patients most at risk of this postoperative complication. They will present their findings at the Cardiovascular Aging: Old Friends and New Frontiers conference in Westminster, Colo.

Cardiovascular Aging Symposium Explores Relationship between Dysfunction and Disease Development

During the “Novel Implications for Blood Flow and Vascular Dysfunction in Non-cardiovascular Related Disease” symposium at the APS Cardiovascular Aging: New Frontiers and Old Friends conference, researchers will present findings that emphasize the interaction between age-related cardiovascular dysfunction and disease whose risk increases with age.

Menopausal Status May Better Predict Blood Vessel Health in Women than Fitness Level

High physical fitness is known to be related to enhanced blood vessel dilation and blood flow (endothelial function) in aging men. However, for women, endothelial function and the effect of exercise may be related more to menopausal status than fitness. Researchers from the University of Massachusetts Amherst will present their findings today at the Cardiovascular Aging: New Frontiers and Old Friends conference in Westminster, Colo.

E-Cigarette Use Accelerates Effects of Cardiovascular Aging

A new study suggests that a single exposure to e-cigarette (e-cig) vapor may be enough to impair vascular function. Researchers from West Virginia University will present findings today at the Cardiovascular Aging: New Frontiers and Old Friends meeting in Westminster, Colo.

Researchers Explore a Better Way to Measure Blood Pressure

Automatic blood pressure devices are often used to assess blood pressure levels at home and in the clinic. But these automatic devices are prone to significant errors, sometimes leading to the prescription of blood pressure-lowering medications to patients who don’t actually need them. Researchers at the Jerusalem College of Technology and the Shaare Zedek Medical Center in Israel have developed a method to more accurately measure systolic blood pressure. They will present their findings at the Cardiovascular Aging: New Frontiers and Old Friends conference in Westminster, Colo.

Strategies to Optimize and Slow Cardiovascular Aging

Heart disease remains the leading cause of death in the U.S. and growing older is the greatest—and most inevitable—risk factor for it. So what, if anything, can we do to keep our hearts and arteries as healthy as possible for as long as possible? Keynote speaker Douglas Seals, PhD, of the University of Colorado Boulder, will lay the groundwork of what we know and the promising research that could combat cardiovascular aging in his presentation “Strategies for Optimal Cardiovascular Aging.” Seals will present his lecture at the Cardiovascular Aging: New Frontiers and Old Friends conference in Westminster, Colo.

Caffeine Shortens Recovery Time from General Anesthesia

Caffeine helps quickly boost wakefulness following general anesthesia, a new study finds. The stimulant—used daily by more than 90 percent of adults in the U.S.—appears to alter physiological function in two different ways to shorten recovery time. The paper, published ahead of print in the Journal of Neurophysiology, was chosen as an APSselect article for August.

Staying Young at Heart: Researchers Convene to Discuss Advances in Healthy Cardiovascular Aging

Aging—the No. 1 risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease—and maintaining cardiovascular health is the main focus of the upcoming APS conference “Cardiovascular Aging: New Frontiers and Old Friends.” The conference—which will convene exercise, aging, cardiovascular and other researchers—will be held August 11–14, 2017, in Westminster, Colo.

Environmental Pollution Exposure during Pregnancy Increases Asthma Risk for Three Generations

Exposure to environmental pollutants during pregnancy may increase the risk of asthma for as many as three consecutive generations, according to new research. The study is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology.

Aerobic Exercise Found Safe for Non-Dialysis Kidney Disease Patients

A new study finds that moderate exercise does not impair kidney function in some people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The study—the first to analyze the effects of exercise on kidney disease that does not require dialysis—is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Renal Physiology. The paper was chosen as an APSselect article for July.

Stroke Recovery Window May Be Wider than We Think

Stroke survivors may experience delayed recovery of limb function up to decades after injury, according to a new case study. The article, published ahead of print in the Journal of Neurophysiology, was chosen as an APSselect article for July.

Genetic Differences May Contribute to Changes in Astronauts’ Eyes

Researchers have found that genetic variation may increase susceptibility of some astronauts to develop higher-than-normal carbon dioxide levels in the blood, which may contribute to eye abnormalities, including grooved bands on the retina in the eye and swelling of the optic nerve. The study is published in Physiological Reports.

Thomas Kleyman appointed Editor in Chief of Physiological Reports as of January 2018; Morten Thomsen appointed Deputy Editor in Chief

The Joint Managing Board of Physiological Reports, representing the Publication Committees of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society, is pleased to announce the following Editor appointments to the Journal:

Older Adults’ Lungs Remain Strong during Exercise

Highly active older adults experience no limitations in the lungs’ capacity to exchange gases (lung-diffusing capacity) during physical activity, researchers have found. The study is published in the Journal of Applied Physiology.

APS Awards $267,350 to Its 2017 Undergraduate Research Fellows

The American Physiological Society is pleased to announce it's 2017 Undergraduate Summer Research Fellows. Recipients of the Society’s four summer fellowship programs spend an average of 10 weeks in the laboratory of an established scientist and APS member.

Global Warming May Cause Spike in Asthma, Allergy Symptoms

A new study finds that exposure to a widespread outdoor fungus can increase cell damage (oxidative stress) in the airways. This spike weakens the airways’ barrier defense system that, when functioning normally, removes infection- and allergy-causing organisms (mucociliary clearance). The study, published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Cell Physiology, was chosen as an APSselect article for June.

Short, High-Intensity Exercise Sessions Improve Insulin Production in Type 2 Diabetes

A new study finds that short, functional-movement and resistance training workouts, called functional high-intensity training (F-HIT), may improve beta-cell function in adults with type 2 diabetes. Beta cells in the pancreas produce, store and secrete insulin, which allows your body to use sugar for energy. The small study is the first one of its kind to analyze beta-cell function in F-HIT or resistance training. The article is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism.

APS Urges Congress to Reject Trump Plan to Cut Research Funding

On May 23, 2017, the Trump administration released its FY 2018 budget proposal calling for large cuts to research at the NIH, NSF, NASA and the VA. The APS calls on members of Congress to reject these huge and damaging cuts to research. Not only would this curtail scientific progress, it would also be devastating to our nation’s scientific enterprise and biomedical workforce.

Dennis Brown, PhD, Becomes 90th President of the American Physiological Society

Dennis Brown, PhD, assumed the presidency of the American Physiological Society (APS) in April, immediately following the APS annual meeting at Experimental Biology 2017. Brown is a professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School (HMS) and director of the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) program in membrane biology in the division of nephrology. He also serves as associate director of the MGH Center for Systems Biology and director of the MGH Office for Research Career Development (ORCD).

New Officers Begin Terms at American Physiological Society

The American Physiological Society (APS) is pleased to announce its new leadership: President Elect Jeff M. Sands, MD, and Councilors Charles H. Lang, PhD; Merry L. Lindsey, PhD; and Ronald M. Lynch, PhD. The new officers were elected by the APS membership and took office last month at the Experimental Biology meeting in Chicago.

Exposure to Alcohol Before Birth May Make Drinking More Appealing to Teens

A new study suggests that fetal alcohol exposure (FAE) reduces the taste system’s responsiveness to the bitter flavor and burning sensation of many varieties of alcoholic beverages. These factors make alcohol unappealing to some people, but, for reasons that are unclear, are less of a deterrent in young people exposed to alcohol before birth. The study is published ahead of print in the Journal of Neurophysiology.

Beetroot Juice May Provide Benefits to Heart Disease Patients

A new study finds that dietary nitrate—a compound that dilates blood vessels to decrease blood pressure—may reduce overstimulation of the sympathetic nervous system that occurs with heart disease. The research team looked specifically at beetroot juice, a source of dietary nitrate, to explore its use as a future targeted treatment option for people with cardiovascular disease. The study, published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Heart and Circulatory Physiology, is the first to study the effects of nitrate supplementation on sympathetic nerve activity.

Prolonged Military-Style Training Causes Changes to Intestinal Bacteria, Increases Inflammation

A new study finds that long periods of physiological stress can change the composition of microorganisms residing in the intestines (intestinal microbiota), which could increase health risks in endurance athletes and military personnel. The study, published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, is the first to study the response of the intestinal microbiota during military training. The manuscript was chosen as an APSselect article for May.

Can Aromatherapy Calm Competition Horses?

Although studies suggest that inhaling certain scents may reduce stress in humans, aromatherapy is relatively unexplored in veterinary medicine. But new research presented today at the Experimental Biology 2017 meeting in Chicago raises the question of whether aromatherapy may be beneficial to horses as well.

Intense Training without Proper Recovery Raise Stress Fracture, Bone Loss Probability in Elite Rowers

Bone mineral density, an indicator of bone strength, typically increases with regular exercise acting as a protective mechanism against bone fractures and osteoporosis. But a new study suggests that the extended, high-intensity training sessions of elite athletes could reverse beneficial bone changes. Researchers from Brock University in Canada will present their findings today at the Experimental Biology 2017 meeting in Chicago.

Vitamin A + High-Fat Diet = Increased Risk for Obesity, Diabetes

Vitamin A is an essential nutrient that the human body needs to function properly. But new research presented today at the Experimental Biology 2017 meeting in Chicago suggests that normal levels of vitamin A within a high-fat diet can negatively affect expression of liver genes associated with glucose and fat metabolism.

Starvation Prompts Body Temperature, Blood Sugar Changes to Tolerate Next Food Limitation

Rats that have experienced past episodes of limited food resources make physiological adaptations that may extend their lives the next time they are faced with starvation. New research about starvation physiology will be presented today at the Experimental Biology 2017 meeting in Chicago.

How Walking Benefits the Brain

Researchers at New Mexico Highlands University (NMHU) found that the foot’s impact during walking sends pressure waves through the arteries that significantly modify and can increase the supply of blood to the brain. The research is presented at the APS annual meeting at Experimental Biology 2017 in Chicago.

Altered Immune Cells May Both Contribute to Preeclampsia and Offer New Hope for Treatment

In a new study presented at the APS annual meeting at Experimental Biology 2017, researchers have found that the immune system’s natural killer (NK) cells activate and change in response to placental ischemia. Disrupting these altered cells seems to blunt some of the dangerous complications of the condition, including high blood pressure (hypertension) and inflammation in the mother and growth restriction in the fetus.

APS 2017 Distinguished Lectureship Award Winners to Present Talks at Experimental Biology

APS is pleased to recognize our outstanding Distinguished Lecturer honorees—including Michael J. Welsh, MD; Brant Isakson, PhD; and Kurt Albertine, PhD—who will present their talks at the APS annual meeting at Experimental Biology 2017.

APS Celebrates 50 Years of Diversity in Physiology during Porter Fellowship Anniversary

Since 1967, the American Physiological Society’s (APS’s) Porter Physiology Development Fellowship has supported 140 minority doctoral and postdoctoral researchers in the study of the physiological sciences and related careers. In honor of the program’s 50th anniversary, APS shares the stories of 24 past Fellows in a commemorative book and will celebrate current and past Porter Fellows and the legacy of the Fellowship at Experimental Biology in Chicago and throughout 2017.

Nobel Laureate, Esteemed Researchers Participate in APS President’s Symposium

APS President Jane Reckelhoff, PhD, of the University of Mississippi Medical Center, has developed an engaging President’s Symposium Series to be presented during the 2017 Experimental Biology meeting in Chicago. Three symposia will focus on the theme “Research Advances in Sex/Gender and Developmental Programming of Chronic Diseases.”

Cortical Nerve Function in Former Amputees Remains Poor Decades after Reconstructive Surgery

Researchers have found that the nerve cells (neurons) controlling sensation and movement of the hands show injury-induced changes for years after hand amputation, reattachment or transplant. The small study, the first of its kind to non-invasively explore the health and function of the cortical neurons (neuronal integrity) in these populations at the neurochemical level, is published ahead of print in the Journal of Neurophysiology. The manuscript was chosen as an APSselect article for April.

EB 2017 Highlights - APS News Update Special Edition

Organized by date, this special edition of our bi-weekly member e-newsletter features “can’t-miss” highlights from the APS EB 2017 program.

To Eat or Not to Eat (Before Exercising): That Is the Question

Exercise enthusiasts often wonder whether it’s better to eat or fast before a workout. A new study is the first of its kind to show the effects of eating versus fasting on gene expression in adipose (fat) tissue in response to exercise. This difference highlights the different roles fat plays in powering and responding to exercise. The study is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism.

High-Fat Diet during Pregnancy Compromises Offspring’s Lung Health

Women who follow a high-fat diet during pregnancy may increase their children’s risk for asthma. A mouse study by Oregon Health and Science University researchers suggests that consistent consumption of fat-laden foods may change the immune response of the offsprings’ respiratory system. The article is published in Physiological Reports.

Statins May Provide Treatment Alternative for Chronic Liver Disease

Statin drugs are widely used to manage high cholesterol and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. But in a new review of more than 50 studies, researchers cite reductions in liver inflammation and improvements in other related factors as reasons why statins make good candidates for treating chronic liver disease. The article is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology.

APS Urges Congress to Reject Proposed Cuts to Research

APS issued a statement March 16 urging Congress to reject President Trump’s plan for drastic NIH budget cuts.

Synched Work Schedules during “Antarctic Summer” May Affect Release Patterns of Sleep and Wake Hormones

The continuous daylight conditions of summer in Antarctica are known to interfere with physiological functions such as sleep patterns and the release of melatonin, a hormone associated with circadian rhythms and sleep. Now, a study offers new information about why people in this region sleep poorly, and suggests that social behavior may also play a role. The study, published ahead of print in the Journal of Applied Physiology, was chosen as an APSselect article for March.

Caffeine Reduces Oxidative Stress, Improves Oxygen-Induced Lung Injury

A new study finds that caffeine may protect the lungs from damage caused by prolonged oxygen therapy, such as oxygen supplementation given to premature babies. The article is the first of its kind to study the positive effects of caffeine on the lungs’ minute tissue structures. It is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology.

“Superhero Physiology: the Case for Captain America”

A common challenge to educators across all disciplines is making learning interesting for students. Researchers from Mississippi State University outline a compelling strategy to teach physiology to undergraduate students: using real physiological concepts to explain some of the extreme physical transformations of the fictional superhero Captain America. The article is published in Advances in Physiology Education.

Raising Dietary Potassium to Sodium Ratio Helps Reduce Heart, Kidney Disease

Reducing sodium (salt) in the diet has been recommended to lower blood pressure and the risk of heart disease. However, in a new review article, University of Southern California researchers found that increasing dietary potassium is as important to improving the risk factors for cardiovascular and kidney disease as limiting dietary sodium. The article is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism.

Sports-Related Concussion Negatively Affects Heart Rate, Blood Pressure

A new study finds that concussion causes short-term impairment of the cardiovascular system but that these cardiovascular symptoms typically resolve within three days of the injury. The article is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology.

Researchers Find Unhealthy Gut Microbes a Cause of Hypertension

Researchers have found that the microorganisms residing in the intestines (microbiota) play a role in the development of high blood pressure in rats. The study is published in Physiological Genomics. It was chosen as an APSselect article for February.

Whole-Body Heat Stress Lowers Exercise Capacity, Blood Flow in Men

Researchers have found that prolonged exposure to high temperatures can raise both the skin and core temperature, reducing blood flow to the brain and limbs during exercise and limiting the ability to exercise for long periods. The study, the first of its kind to separate the effects of skin- versus internal-raised temperature (hyperthermia), is published in Physiological Reports.

APS Announces Move to Atypon for Journal Hosting

APS will move its physiology research journal titles to Atypon’s Literatum platform, the professional and scholarly publishing industry’s technologically advanced and most widely used online publishing platform for hosting published content.

APS and ADI Announce Partnership to Provide Enhanced Scientific Community Support

ADI will expand its financial support for a range of early career research awards across a number of fields, including cardiovascular, respiratory, physiological genomics and neural control and autonomic regulation as part of its new partnership with APS.

Food and Antibiotics May Change Microorganisms in Gut, Causing IBS

A recent review of research suggests that changes to the microorganisms (microbiota) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract may be a cause of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The review article is published in the American Journal of Physiology—Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology.

The Type, Not Just the Amount, of Sugar Consumption Matters in Risk of Health Problems

The type of sugar you eat—and not just calorie count—may determine your risk for chronic disease. A new study is the first of its kind to compare the effects of two types of sugar on metabolic and vascular function. The paper is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Heart and Circulatory Physiology.

Fit after 100: Training Helps French Bicyclist Beat His Own World Record at 103

Adults over 100 years old can still increase their athletic performance and physical fitness with regular training, researchers have found. The case study of Robert Marchand, the now 105-year-old who recently broke the 100+ cycling record—again—is published ahead of print in the Journal of Applied Physiology.

Nerve-Signaling Protein Regulates Gene Associated with Schizophrenia

Researchers from the University of California, San Diego, have identified a protein that regulates a gene associated with schizophrenia. The study, published in the Journal of Neurophysiology, was chosen as an APSselect article for January.

High-Mileage Runners Expend Less Energy than Low-Mileage Runners

Runners who consistently log high mileage show more neuromuscular changes that improve running efficiency than their low-mileage counterparts, according to researchers from Liverpool John Moores University in the United Kingdom. The paper is published in the Journal of Applied Physiology.

Aspirin Slows Spread of Colon, Pancreatic Cancer in Tumor Cells

Researchers from Oregon Health and Science University have found that aspirin may slow the spread of some types of colon and pancreatic cancer cells. The paper is published in the American Journal of Physiology—Cell Physiology.

Inactive Lifestyle Linked to Ozone-Related Lung

An inactive lifestyle may increase the risk of environmentally induced asthma symptoms. In a new study published in the American Journal of Physiology—Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency researchers found that sedentary rats exposed to varying degrees of ozone, a type of air pollution, had higher markers for chronic disease when compared to counterparts that were more active.

Cigarette Smoke Exposure Increases Scar Tissue in the Kidney and Heart, Study Finds

Smoking may lead to fibrosis in the heart and kidneys and can worsen existing kidney disease, according to a new study published in Physiological Genomics. The research team suggests that exposure to cigarette smoke negatively affects genetic messaging that controls tissue scarring.

Long-Term Use of Postmenopausal Estrogen Treatment May Impair Kidney Function

Long-term estrogen treatment after menopause may increase the risk of new kidney damage and negatively affect women with abnormal kidney function. New research published in the American Journal of Physiology—Renal Physiology finds that markers for kidney damage worsened in a rat model of menopause as the length of estrogen treatment increased.

Smoke + Hot Temperatures = Increased SIDS Risk

Researchers are a step closer to understanding why cigarette smoke exposure during pregnancy may increase the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). SIDS is the unexplained, sudden death of a child younger than one year of age. A new study published in the American Journal of Physiology – Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology finds that prenatal cigarette smoke exposure in rats affected breathing responses and immune function of their offspring. Breathing and immune function are further negatively affected by high room temperatures.

Study Explores How Immune System Functions During Sleep

Research published in the American Journal of Physiology – Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology gives new insight into sleep’s importance to overall health: it may give the immune system a chance to regroup at a time when the relative risk of infection is low. The research team observed that healthy volunteers had greatly reduced numbers of certain T cell subsets within three hours of falling asleep. While it’s unclear where the T cells go during sleep, the researchers have some guesses to where and why they migrate.

Integrative Biology of Exercise 7: Friday Research Highlights

Read about today’s highlighted research abstracts.

Testosterone Levels Improve in Overweight, Obese Men after 12-Week Exercise Program

Twelve weeks of aerobic exercise significantly boosted testosterone levels in overweight and obese men, according to researchers from Tsukuba University and Ryutsu Keizai University in Japan. Increased levels were highest among men who exercised vigorously. The new findings will be presented at the Integrative Biology of Exercise 7 meeting in Phoenix.

Exercise during Pregnancy May Reduce Markers of Aging in Offspring

Exercise during pregnancy may be as effective in protecting the next generation from age-related health risks as efforts made during the offspring’s own adulthood, new research suggests. University of Kentucky researchers will present their findings at the Integrative Biology of Exercise 7 meeting.

Dad’s Preconception Exercise May Increase Obesity, Insulin Resistance Risk in Offspring

Fathers who exercise regularly before their children are conceived may program their offspring's genes with an increased risk for metabolic disorders, according to new research from East Carolina University. The surprising results, to be presented at the Integrative Biology of Exercise 7 meeting, point to the identification of epigenetic markers that may change the process of diagnosis and management of chronic disease.

Exercise May Shield Against the Health Fallout of a Weeklong Overindulgence

Previous studies show that as little as one week of overeating can impair glycemic control and insulin sensitivity. Just in time for holiday feasting, a new study by University of Michigan researchers finds that exercise can protect fat tissue from changes in inflammation levels and fat metabolism caused by a brief period of eating too many calories. Research will be presented at the Integrative Biology of Exercise meeting in Phoenix.

Hate Exercise? It May Be in Your Genes

Genes, specifically those that modulate dopamine in the brain, may play a role in a person’s propensity to embrace or avoid exercise. Rodney Dishman of the University of Georgia will present findings from studies in rats and humans in his talk “Genetics of Exercise Avoidance” at the Integrative Biology of Exercise 7 meeting in Phoenix.

Regular Exercisers Still Face Health Risks From Too Much Sitting

People who meet recommended weekly physical activity guidelines are still at risk of developing chronic disease if they spend too much non-exercising time sitting, new research suggests. Peter Katzmarzyk of the Pennington Biomedical Research Center will present findings at the Integrative Biology of Exercise 7 meeting.

Study Finds Weight Loss after Obesity Doesn’t Cut Risk of Certain Types of Cancer

Losing weight may not protect against colon and liver cancer, even though obesity is associated with increased risk of certain types of gastrointestinal malignancy. The research, published in the American Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, was chosen as an APSselect article for November.

Integrative Biology of Exercise 7: Thursday Research Highlights

Read about today’s highlighted research abstracts.

CALL FOR NOMINATIONS for the Editorship of Physiological Reports

APS is accepting nominations for the editorship of the Physiological Reports to succeed Susan Wray, who will complete her term as Editor on December 31, 2017.

Community Colleges Play Essential Role in Physiology Education

Despite community colleges serving an important role in the STEM education pipeline, physiology students and faculty at these schools are not getting the same professional development and collaboration opportunities as their counterparts at four-year institutions. Two community college faculty members addressed this disparity in Advances in Physiology Education.

Leading Experts Convene to Discuss the Effects, Potential of Exercise throughout the Lifespan

Hundreds of researchers on the leading edge of exercise science will meet at the Integrative Biology of Exercise meeting in Phoenix (Nov. 2–4). Symposia topics will cover brain cell stress responses, metabolic diseases, mitochondrial signaling, sedentary behavior, exercise and pregnancy, cardiovascular disease, aging, stem cells and more.

Ability to Process Speech Declines with Age

Researchers have found clues to the causes of age-related hearing loss. The ability to track and understand speech in both quiet and noisy environments deteriorates due in part to speech processing declines in both the midbrain and cortex in older adults. The study, published in the Journal of Neurophysiology, was chosen as an APSselect article for October.

Interval Exercise Training Improves Blood Vessel Function in Older

Researchers have found that interval exercise training (resistance-based and cardiovascular) improves endothelial function in older adults. Resistance interval training in particular could help reduce the risk of heart disease in adults with type 2 diabetes. The study is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Heart and Circulatory Physiology.

Common Bacteria Show Promise for Treating Celiac Disease

Researchers have isolated an enzyme from bacteria present in human saliva that has potential as a therapy for celiac disease (CD), an autoimmune disorder that causes severe digestive and other health problems among sufferers when they consume gluten. The study, published in the American Journal of Physiology—Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, was chosen as an APSselect article for September.

Nonhuman Primate Research Integral to Search for Future Cures

Research in nonhuman primates (NHP) has led to some of the most significant medical advancements known today and will be essential to continued biomedical progress, according to a new white paper developed by experts from APS and 8 other biomedical research organizations. Read more highlights and find a link to the full paper “The Critical Role of Nonhuman Primates in Medical Research.”

Researchers Target Gut Bacteria to Reduce Weight Gain

Adding engineered bacteria into the guts of mice both kept them from gaining weight and protected them against some of the negative health effects of obesity. Researchers will present their findings today at the American Physiological Society’s Inflammation, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease conference.

MicroRNAs May Link Inflammation and Heart Disease in Obese People

Results from a new study suggest that small molecules known as microRNAs may be part of the pathway connecting inflammation with increased heart disease risk in obese people. The new findings will be presented at the American Physiological Society’s Inflammation, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease conference.

Could the Paleo Diet Benefit Heart Health?

Findings from a small study suggest that people who followed the Paleo diet for only eight weeks experienced positive effects on heart health. Preliminary findings from this research will be presented at the American Physiological Society’s Inflammation, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease conference

Stiff Arteries Linked with Memory Problems, Mouse Study Suggests

Using a new mouse model, researchers have found that stiffer arteries can also negatively affect memory and other critical brain processes. The findings, which may eventually reveal how arterial stiffness leads to Alzheimer’s and other diseases involving dementia, will be presented at the American Physiological Society’s Inflammation, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease conference.

Researchers Convene to Explore Role of Inflammation, Immune Response in Cardiovascular Disease

More and more research points to the involvement of inflammation and the immune system on the development of cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular physiologists and immunologists will meet to explore how these mechanisms interact at the Inflammation, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease conference in Westminster, Colo., on Aug. 24–27, 2016.

Dad’s Fatty Diet Can Lead to Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome in Grand-Offspring

Researchers report on how paternal intake of a high-fat diet causes changes in genes that lead to generational obesity and metabolic dysfunction, including body weight and fat mass increases and changes in blood pressure, triglyceride levels and fat metabolism. However, these effects in offspring can be significantly improved or abolished by feeding lower fat diet to subsequent generations. The article is published in AJP-Endocrinology and Metabolism and was chosen as an APSselect article for August.

Study in Rats Finds Maternal Intake of Past-Its-Prime Fish Oil Linked to Newborn Death

Released July 22, 2016 - Nearly 30 percent of newborn pups born to pregnant rats fed highly-oxidized (“off”) fish oil died within two days after birth, finds a new study by researchers at the Liggins Institute at the University of Auckland in New Zealand. The research is published in the American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology.

Extra Fat Does Not Act as an Insulator

Carrying excess fat does not contribute to a warmer body in obese mice, a new study on the insulating effects of fat finds. The article is published in the American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism.

The Reason Behind Your Group Project Fail

Group projects: Love them or hate them, working as a team is a necessary skill (or evil depending on who you ask). Researchers at Wright State University found that their natural science students anecdotally reported poor experiences working on teams. So they explored whether teaching students how to effectively function on teams positively affected learning outcomes and final grades.

Standardized-Exam Development Approach Improves Classroom Exams

Blueprinting may improve consistency of exams in the classroom year to year. A medical school professor discusses how he successfully predicted students’ performance on a first-year medical course exam he developed using blueprinting at the APS Institute on Teaching and Learning Workshop.

Active Learning Science Courses May Improve Student Retention in STEM

Having undergraduate students take part in scientific discovery may be a viable way to keep students interested in STEM, according to a growing body of research by science educators and education researchers. Experts summarize the successes and challenges of discovery-based research courses at the APS Institute on Teaching and Learning Workshop.

Science Educators Convene to Discuss What’s Next and New in Teaching Physiology

Dozens of undergraduate and professional school physiology educators will attend this workshop-intensive meeting to discuss best practices in physiology education, including: the changing role of students and instructors in today’s classrooms; new teaching strategies that attendees can employ in their own classrooms; new research on student learning behaviors; and challenges of engaging millennial learners.

June APSselect Research Highlights

Research selected as part of the APSselect program is considered the month’s “best of the best” by the APS journals editors-in-chiefs. This month’s highlighted research includes a study on the consequences of rehydrating with soda and how chronic alcohol exposure can lead to pancreatic problems.

Excess Consumption of Phosphates in Processed Foods Promotes Hypertension in Rats

Excess consumption of phosphate—commonly used in foods as a preservative, flavor enhancer and color stabilizer—over-activates nerves that raise blood pressure, leading to abnormally high blood pressure, a new study in the American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology reports. The findings highlight the need for further studies in humans to determine if the amount of added phosphate should be included on food labels.

Early-Life Stress Causes Digestive Problems and Anxiety in Rats

Traumatic events early in life can increase levels of norepinephrine—the primary hormone responsible for preparing the body to react to stressful situations—in the gut, increasing the risk of developing chronic indigestion and anxiety during adulthood, a new study in the American Journal of Physiology—Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology reports.

APS Awards $403,200 to Its 2016 Undergraduate Research Fellows

APS has announced the 74 recipients of its 2016 Undergraduate Summer Research Fellowships. Recipients of the Society’s five summer fellowship programs spend an average of 10 weeks in the laboratory of an established scientist and APS member.

Chronic Drinking Interferes with Absorption of Critical Vitamins by Pancreas

Chronic exposure to alcohol interferes with the pancreas’ ability to absorb vitamin C, potentially predisposing the body to pancreatitis and other pancreatic diseases, a new study in the American Journal of Physiology—Cell Physiology reports. The findings provide a link between chronic alcohol use and poor pancreatic health.

Study Shows How Atherosclerosis and Osteoporosis Are Linked

Patients with atherosclerosis are at a higher risk of osteoporosis. A new study published in the American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism reports that atherosclerosis reduces the number of bone-forming cells, leading to loss of bone density. This study is highlighted as one of this month’s “best of the best” as part of the American Physiological Society’s APSselect program.

Call for Nominations for the Editorship of Journal of Applied Physiology

Nominations are invited for the Editorship of the Journal of Applied Physiology to succeed Peter D. Wagner, who will complete his term as Editor on June 30, 2017.

Dry Eyes No More: New Insight May Lead to Better Detection and Treatment of Common Autoimmune Disease

Sjögren's syndrome affects an estimated four million people in the U.S., but diagnosis is often delayed because its symptoms are similar to other conditions. A new study in the American Journal of Physiology—Cell Physiology describes a protein with the potential to be an earlier and more precise indicator of the disease.

More than Just Eyes and Skin: Vitamin A Affects the Heart

Vitamin A is important for heart development in embryos, but whether it has a role in maintaining heart health is unclear. A new study in the American Journal of Physiology—Heart and Circulatory Physiology finds that the heart is able to respond to vitamin A and the amount of vitamin A present has an effect. However, whether the effects are beneficial or harmful is still a mystery.

Jane Reckelhoff, PhD, Becomes 89th President of the American Physiological Society

Jane Reckelhoff, PhD, was installed as APS president in April, immediately following the APS annual meeting at Experimental Biology 2016. Reckelhoff is a Billy S. Guyton Distinguished Professor, director of the Women’s Health Research Center, director of research development for the Office of Research and Sponsored Programs and professor of physiology and biophysics at the University of Mississippi Medical Center.

New Officers Join Leadership of the American Physiological Society

APS is pleased to introduce the new members of its leadership: President Elect Dennis Brown, PhD, and Councilors Jennifer S. Pollock, PhD; Willis K. Samson, PhD; and Harold D. Schultz, PhD. The new officers were elected by the APS membership and took office in April at the Experimental Biology meeting in San Diego.

Health Improvements after Gastric-Bypass Surgery Start Well before Dramatic Weight Loss Begins

New research presented at the Experimental Biology 2016 meeting suggests that fat and blood sugar control and cardiovascular health start improving in the early stages of recovery before dramatic weight loss occurs.

Move Over, Polar Bear Plunge: Ice Swimming Is Next Big Extreme Winter Water Sport

Hundreds of athletes around the globe are competing in one-mile ice swims. Performance and human physiological response in water 5 degrees Celsius or less has not been well-studied. Researchers will present new data on how age, gender and environmental factors such as wind chill affect ice swimming performance at Experimental Biology 2016.

The Down Side of Your Sweet and Salty Addiction: Rapid Onset High Blood Pressure?

High levels of fructose similar to amounts consumed within the American diet may predispose individuals to fast-onset, salt-sensitive hypertension, according to New research presented at the Experimental Biology 2016 meeting in San Diego.

Exercise Reduces Cardiovascular Risk Factors from Constant Stress

Constant stress is associated with signs of poor blood vessel health and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. New research presented at the Experimental Biology 2016 meeting in San Diego finds that aerobic exercise kept the blood vessels of stressed rats working normally.

Fat Stunts Growth of Tobacco Hornworm Caterpillars

Tobacco hornworm caterpillars eating a high-fat diet are smaller than their counterparts eating a medium- or low-fat diet. New research presented at the Experimental Biology 2016 meeting found that fat decreased the caterpillars’ food consumption, leading to the smaller body size.

Do More Uphill Sprints! Higher Anaerobic Fitness Gives Edge to Mountain Ultra-Marathon Runners

New research presented at the Experimental Biology 2016 meeting suggests a runner’s pre-race anaerobic fitness capacity may be a key factor in determining who will have the fastest finishing times during grueling 50 km (31 mile) mountain ultramarathons.

Genetically Modified Mouse’s Brain Lights Up As It Thinks

Scientists have developed a genetically modified mouse with brain cells that light up when active. The new mouse will allow scientists to see how the brain processes information. This study is published in Journal of Neurophysiology and is highlighted as one of this month’s “best of the best” as part of the American Physiological Society’s APSselect program.

APS 2016 Distinguished Lectureship Award Winners to Present Talks at Experimental Biology

APS is pleased to recognize the outstanding honorees who will present their award lectures at the Experimental Biology 2016 meeting in San Diego.

Nobel Laureate, Leading Experts Speak in APS President’s Symposium Series

Leading research experts will discuss the physiology behind organ injury in alcohol abuse, the health impacts of diet, and adaptations to stress as part of the President's Symposium Series at the Experimental Biology 2016 meeting in San Diego. The series is anchored with the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Lecture by Nobel Laureate Roger Tsien, PhD.

The Brain May Show Signs of Aging Earlier than Old Age

A new study published in Physiological Genomics suggests that the brain shows signs of aging earlier than old age. The study found that the microglia cells—the immune cells of the brain—in middle-aged mice already showed altered activity seen in microglia from older mice.

Review Article Uncovers Clues to the Causes, Risk Factors for and Prevention of Drowning Deaths

An international team of researchers have published an extensive review of scientific literature on factors involved drowning fatalities in the journal Physiology. They outline how the fear of drowning, fitness level, fatigue, intoxication and other factors can contribute to negative outcomes and highlight warnings for people who may be at increased risk of drowning, such as those with heart conditions.

Meet Your New APS Officers

The votes have been counted and the 2016 APS election results are in! Meet our new president-elect and councilors in the March edition of The Physiologist.

Turning on Blood Flow Turns on Fat-Burning Brown Fat in Mice

Increasing the blood flow in brown fat causes it to burn more calories in mice and may help treat obesity, a new study in the Journal of Applied Physiology reports. This research is highlighted as one of this month’s “best of the best” as part of the American Physiological Society’s APSselect program.

Aging May Worsen the Effects of a High-Salt Diet

Age significantly impaired the ability of rats to get rid of excess sodium when exposed to a high-salt diet, according to research published in the American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. Findings could have implications for salt consumption in the elderly; suggest older people could be at greater risk for the negative consequences of eating a high-salt diet.

Rat Study Shows that Renal Denervation Helps to Bring Drug-Resistant Hypertension under Control

Most clinical studies have shown that renal denervation—a procedure that disrupts the nerves in the kidneys and prevents them from relaying signals—can treat drug-resistant hypertension, although a number have shown the procedure to be ineffective. A new study in the American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology supports that renal denervation can treat hypertension and suggests that failures may be due to incomplete procedure. This research is highlighted as one of this month’s “best of the best” as part of the American Physiological Society’s APSselect program.

Small Reduction in Food Intake May Be Enough to Slow Polycystic Kidney Disease

A small reduction in food intake—less than required to cause weight loss—dramatically slowed the development of a common genetic disorder called autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in mice, a new study in the American Journal of Physiology—Renal Physiology reports. There are no approved treatments for ADPKD in the U.S., and food reduction would be an ideal therapy because it most likely does not have side effects and is cost-effective, says the lead author.

Study May Explain Why Stroke Risk in Women Changes after Menopause

Overactive microglia—the brain’s immune cells—may worsen the damage from brain injury after stroke or head impact. A new study in the American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism reports that a compound produced from estrogen called 2-methoxyestradiol calms overactive microglia. The findings offer an explanation for why stroke risk in women changes after menopause and point to potential treatments for treating brain injuries in men and women.

Not the Weaker Sex: Estrogen Protects Women against the Flu, Study Finds

A new study published in the American Journal of Physiology—Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology finds that the female sex hormone estrogen has anti-viral effects against the influenza A virus, commonly known as the flu. The study supports why the flu may hit men harder than women.

Beyond Dance: Ballet Training Improves Muscle Coordination in Everyday Activities

A new study in the Journal of Neurophysiology reports that professional ballet dancers have more control over their muscles than individuals with no dance training. This research is highlighted as one of this month’s “best of the best” as part of the American Physiological Society’s APSselect program.

Sad News, Death of Bill Stanley, EIC, AJP-Heart

It is with great sadness that we announce the death of Bill Stanley, Editor-in-Chief of AJP-Heart in Sydney, Australia. Bill’s death was very sudden and the news is shocking. Bill was a passionate and innovative leader of AJP-Heart, and the Journal editors and staff will ensure that his work on the journal continues without pause. We express our deepest condolences to his family.

Inaugural Outstanding Junior Investigator Award

AJP-Lung is delighted to announce that we received nineteen nominations for papers on all aspects of lung biology.

APS Executive Director shares his views on open access in the New England Journal of Medicine

APS Executive Director shares his views on open access in a New England Journal of Medicine Perspective article titled “Open but Not Free – Publishing in the 21st Century".

Comprehensive Physiology indexed in PubMed/Medline

Comprehensive Physiology, the APS serial publication launched in January 2011 is now indexed in Medline/PubMed. Indexing will be retroactive to the first issue. The APS, Ron Terjung, Editor-in-Chief, and Wiley-Blackwell, publisher of the Journal on behalf of the APS, are delighted with this outstanding outcome.

1st PanAmerican Congress of Physiological Sciences 2014

The Scientific Programming Committee (SPC) for the 1st Pan-American Congress of Physiological Sciences invites submission of proposals for Plenary Lectures, Keynote Speakers and Symposia. The first historical meeting of physiologists from the three Americas will be held in the city of Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil from August 2-6, 2014. The theme for the Congress is “Physiology without Borders”.

County of San Diego California's Proclamation to APS

The County of San Diego California proclaimed April 21, 2012 to be "American Physiology Society Day" thoughtout San Diego County.

San Diego Mayor, Jerry Sanders, Extends Welcome to APS

San Diego Mayor Jerry Sanders extends a welcome to APS and issues a proclamation in recognition of the Society’s 125th anniversary, declaring April 21, 2012 to be “American Physiological Society Day” in the City of San Diego.

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