Exercising Harder—and Shorter—Can Help Type 2 Diabetes
Released December 12, 2011 - Regular exercise has proven benefits in preventing and treating type 2 diabetes, but many patients find it tough to meet the American Diabetes Association guidelines of 150 minutes of moderate to vigorous exercise a week. A new study suggests that there could be a better way. In a small proof-of-principle study in eight type 2 diabetes patients, the researchers found that exercising at a very high intensity, but for a mere 30 minutes a week within a 75 minute total time commitment, lowered overall blood sugar concentrations, reduced post-meal blood sugar spikes, and increased skeletal mitochondrial capacity, a marker of metabolic health. The findings suggest that exercising harder, but in a significantly shorter amount of time, could provide benefits similar to longer, but more moderate, activity.
Looking Back on Preparing American Warriors for Battle
Released December 5, 2011 - A review of the accomplishments of the Army Research Institute of Environment Medicine (USARIEM) over the last quarter century is captured in an article in the December 2011 edition of Advances in Physiological Education.
Is There a Central Brain Area for Hearing Melodies and Speech Cues?
Released November 28, 2011 - The perceptual feature of sound known as pitch is fundamental to human hearing, allowing us to enjoy the melodies and harmonies of music and recognize the inflection of speech. Previous studies have suggested that a particular hotspot in the brain might be responsible for perceiving pitch. However, auditory neuroscientists are still hotly debating whether this “pitch center” actually exists. A new review article discusses a recent study claiming that this pitch center may not exist after all, or alternatively, may not be located where previous research has suggested.
PCOS and Cardiovascular Disease
Released October 14, 2011 - One in 15 women of childbearing age is diagnosed with a disorder commonly referred to as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The condition is one of the most common causes of women not ovulating and thus causes difficulty in conceiving. Fertility is not the only health consequence these women face, however. PCOS has been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading killer of women and men alike. Researcher Sarah Berga, MD provides an update.
APS Sponsors Conference on Gender Differences in Health
Released October 13, 2011 - For years, those involved in cardiac care viewed the diagnosis and treatment procedures for cardiovascular disease as applicable to both men and women, despite the fact that heart disease kills 200,000 women each year, five times the rate of breast cancer. Today, thanks in part to physiology -- the study of how the body works -- physicians now know that instead of developing blockages in the arteries supplying blood to the heart, a common occurrence with men, women accumulate plaque more evenly inside the major arteries and in smaller blood vessels. This condition, which appears to be particularly common in younger women, can be as dangerous as the better-known form of the disease. This and other new cardiovascular research findings are just one of the outcomes resulting from the revolution in gender studies in physiology. Cardiovascular disease and other gender-specific conditions are the topic of the latest conference sponsored by the American Physiological Society.
Obese Post-Menopausal Women Outperform Normal Weight Counterparts in Key Tasks
Released October 13, 2011 - Obesity has been associated with cognitive decline, characterized by a deterioration of mental abilities that involve memory, language, and thought-processing speed. But in a study of 300 post-menopausal women, obese participants performed better on three cognitive tests than participants of normal weight, leading researchers to speculate about the role of sex hormones and cognition.
Gender Differences in Blood Pressure Appear as Early as Adolescence
Released October 14, 2011 - New research from the University of California at Merced finds that although obesity does not help teens of either gender, it has a greater impact on girls’ blood pressure than it does on boys’.
Exercise Before and During Early Pregnancy Boosts Key Proteins
Released October 14, 2011 - New study suggests that exercise before conception and in the early stages of pregnancy may protect a mother-to-be by stimulating the expression of two proteins thought to play a role in blood vessel health.
Women’s Heart Disease Tied to Small Blood Vessels
Released October 14, 2011 - Bairey Merz, MD provides an overview of latest data about methods and how they can be applied to help clinicians understand gender differences in the pathophysiology of heart disease.
Gender Matters in Heart Health
Released September 28, 2011 - Highlights of the upcoming meeting, “Physiology of Cardiovascular Disease: Gender Disparities”
Kidney Damage and High Blood Pressure
Released September 22, 2011 - Researchers Tom Kleyman and Ole Skott have independently found that plasmin plays a role in activating the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) on cells.
Importance of Fluid Equilibrium in Prehistoric Organisms
Released September 22, 2011 - Expert Bernard Rossier says ENaC’s appearance on eukaryotic family tree coincides with turning point in evolution—the emergence of the first multicellular creatures.
The Cellular Intricacies of Cystic Fibrosis
Released September 20, 2011 - UNC Chapel Hill team has a technique for observing the genetic shenanigans of cystic fibrosis in human tissue donated by patients.
Abnormal Activation of a Protein May Explain Link Between High Salt Intake & Obesity
Released September 19, 2011 - Research suggests abnormal activation of a protein may help explain the deadly link between high salt intake and obesity.
New Data from Studies Bolsters Case for Using Aldosterone Antagonists in Heart Failure
Released September 19, 2011 - Leading expert reviews data from three prominent studies on the risks and benefits of prescribing aldosterone antagonists for patients who have heart failure.
Unraveling a New Regulator of Cystic Fibrosis
Released September 19, 2011 - Although scientists do not fully understand how or why this defect occurs, researchers have found a promising clue: a protein called ubiquitin ligase Nedd4L.
Have Brain Fatigue? A Bout of Exercise May be the Cure
Released September 16, 2011 - Researchers have discovered that regular exercise increases mitochondria in brain cells, a potential cause for exercise’s beneficial mental effects.
Dean Franklin Young Investigator Award
Released September 14, 2011 - The American Physiological Society (APS) is pleased to announce the establishment of the Dean Franklin Young Investigator Award, sponsored by Data Sciences International (DSI), in recognition of Franklin’s role as a pioneer in noninvasive instrumentation to monitor physiological function in research animals and humans.
Conference - Aldosterone & the ENaC/Degenerin Family of Ion Channels
Released September 6, 2011 - Selected highlights of the APS conference examining the connection between fluid regulation and hypertension.
Scientists Identify Four Candidate Obesity Genes in Mice
Released September 6, 2011 -Researchers find evidence that four genes may relate to obesity. Since humans have their own versions of these genes, the findings could help shed light on obesity in people.
Brain Mapping Technique Reveals More About Vast, Interconnected Networks
Released August 29, 2011 - A mapping technique sheds new light on the brain’s vast interconnected networks.
American Physiological Society Announces Partnership with Springer
Released August 17, 2011 - APS signs agreement with Springer for new publications designed specifically for the research community.
In Heart Disease, Men and Women are Different
Released August 15, 2011 - When it comes to heart disease, men and women are different. Our October 2011 conference focuses on the role of gender in cardiovascular disease, a disease that kills more women than breast cancer.
What's Behind Hypertension?
Released August 1, 2011 - Each day we consume liquids in order to keep hydrated and maintain our body’s fluid balance. But just as a water balloon can get overtaxed by too much liquid, the human body is negatively affected when it retains fluids because it is unable to eliminate them properly. One of the key variables influencing how much fluid we hold in our bodies is ordinary table salt. The consequences of excess fluid retention can be severe, causing not only edema (excess of body fluid), but also high blood pressure (hypertension). What is the connection between fluid balance and hypertension? The 7th International Symposium on Aldosterone and the ENaC/Degenerin Family of Ion Channels explores the topic in detail.
Weight Loss from Gastric Bypass Partly Due to Dietary Fat Aversion
Released July 27, 2011 - A study in people and rats, published by the APS, suggests that gastric bypass doesn’t just cut calories – it may also cause patients to have an aversion to dietary fat.
Exercise-Numerous Beneficial Effects on Brain Health & Cognition
Released July 25, 2011 - Think exercise is only good for your body? A new review article based on more than 100 animal and human studies outlines all the ways it’s good for the brain.
A Mother’s Salt Intake Could be Key to Prenatal Kidney Development
Released July 6, 2011 - A new animal study finds that too much or too little salt has an impact, and could lead to a lifetime of high blood pressure.
When Warming Up for the Cycling Race, Less is More
Released June 16, 2011 - A Canadian study comparing the effects of an intense warm-up with those of a shorter, less strenuous warm-up on the performance of 10 highly trained track cyclists revealed that the shorter warm-up produced less muscle fatigue yet more peak power output.
Key Found to Next Generation’s Disease
Released June 13, 2011 - Texas researchers have produced the strongest evidence yet that vulnerability to type 2 diabetes can begin in the womb, providing insight into the mechanisms of the disease that has reached epidemic proportions.
Link Between Chronic Estrogen Exposure & High Blood Pressure
Released May 26, 2011 - Although the process by which estrogen induces high blood pressure in females is unclear, Michigan State University researchers have found that long-term estrogen exposure generates excessive levels of a compound, superoxide, which causes stress in the body.
“Why Physiology Matters in Medicine”
Released May 16, 2011 - Michael J. Joyner, M.D., Professor of Anesthesiology at the Mayo Clinic, makes a strong case for why teaching the essential science of physiology to tomorrow’s physicians is critical.
Aerobic Exercise May Improve Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Released April 13, 2011 - Walking on a treadmill for one hour a day may slow the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in obese people with prediabetes by jump-starting their metabolism and slowing the oxidative damage wrought by the condition.
Maternal Stress During Pregnancy May Affect Child's Obesity
Released April 12, 2011 - An animal study conducted at the University of Minnesota and Georgetown University suggests that a mother's nutritional or psychological stress during pregnancy and lactation may create a signature on her child's genes that put the child at increased risk for obesity later in life, especially if the child is female.
Moderate Exercise Improves Brain Blood Flow in Elderly Women
Released April 12, 2011 - Research conducted at Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital's Institute for Exercise and Environmental Medicine suggests that it's never too late for women to reap the benefits of moderate aerobic exercise.
Univ of Louisville Professor Earns APS's Cannon Award
Released April 11, 2011 - American Physiological Society has selected Roberto Bolli, MD, Chief of the Division of Cardiovascular Medicine at the University of Louisville in Louisville, Kentucky, to present the Walter B. Cannon Memorial Lecture at the Experimental Biology 2011 meeting.
Vitamin D May Help Heart Risk in African Americans
Released April 11, 2011 - New research from the Georgia Prevention Institute at Georgia Health Sciences University indicates supplementation with Vitamin D, the "sunshine vitamin," may be particularly beneficial for overweight African-American adults, a population at increased risk for both cardiovascular disease and Vitamin D deficiency.
Women's Voices Remain Steady Throughout the Month
Released April 11, 2011 - Study conducted by researchers at the West Texas A&M University in which women's voices were subjected to computerized acoustical analysis contradicts past research asserting that women's voices change at different times over the menstrual cycle.
Johns Hopkins Professor Earns APS's Bowditch Award
Released April 10, 2011 - Larissa A. Shimoda, PhD, Associate Professor of Medicine at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore, Md., has dedicated her research to learning the mechanisms that control pulmonary circulation, and she has identified a number of key changes that occur in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells that contribute to the development of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. The American Physiological Society has recognized the importance of her work by awarding her the Henry Pickering Bowditch Award Lecture, the Society’s second-highest award.
Obesity May Shut Down Circadian Clock in Cardiovascular System
Released April 10, 2011 - Obese individuals typically suffer more medical problems than their leaner counterparts such as insulin resistance, diabetes, increased stress hormones, hypothyroidism, and sleep apnea. Researchers at the Georgia Health Sciences University have found, using an animal model, that a master clock gene – which regulates the cardiovascular system – does not fluctuate regularly as it does in non-obese animals. This means that a key gene clock of the cardiovascular system does not work properly when obesity is present.
Highlights of Physiological Research Being Presented at EB 2011
Released March 14, 2011 - A listing of the educational tracks offered at the American Physiological Society’s annual meeting during Experimental Biology 2011.
The American Physiological Society's "Living History Project"
Released March 4, 2011 - The American Physiological Society has updated its “Living History Project.” Begun in 2005, it is designed to create an archival video record of senior members of the APS who have made outstanding contributions to the science of physiology, as well as the profession.
Physiology Researcher Using Batman to put POW! into Physiology
Released March 4, 2011 - Physiologist E. Paul Zehr writes about how he uses the Batman character to discuss the various components of exercise and physical training and illustrate how the body’s physiological systems respond.
Press Registration For Experimental Biology 2011 Now Open
Released February 28, 2011 - Press registration for the Experimental Biology 2011 meeting opens
Highlights of Physiological Research at the EB 2011 Meeting
Released February 16, 2011 - The American Physiological Society, a co-sponsor of the Experimental Biology 2011 meeting, offers four program tracks designed to provide insight into the progress and programs in physiology: aging and sex differences; cardiovascular pathology; stem cells; and inflammation and immune responses. The meeting will also include the prestigious APS award lectures. The Walter B. Cannon Memorial Award Lecture will be given by Roberto Bolli. The lecture is entitled, "The nitric oxide-carbon monoxide module: A fundamental mechanism of cellular resistance to stress." The Henry Pickering Bowditch Memorial Award Lecture will be presented by Larissa Shimoda. Her lecture is entitled, "Effects of chronic hypoxia on the pulmonary circulation: role of HIF-1."
Press Passes Available for Experimental Biology (EB) 2011
Released January 31, 2011 - Outlining the procedures for press access and coverage of Experimental Biology 2011 held in Washington, DC.
New Changes Announced for Physiological Genomics
Released January 7, 2011 - The journal Physiological Genomics will make three significant changes. It will be published twice per month rather than monthly; be published in on-line only format; and animated images will replace static images on the cover of each edition.
AJP-Heart and Circulatory Physiology Gets New Editor-in-Chief
Released January 3, 2011 - Effective January 1, 2011, William C. Stanley assumes role of Editor-in-Chief for the American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology.