Exercise Suppresses Appetite By Affecting Appetite Hormones
Released December 11, 2008 - A vigorous 60-minute workout on a treadmill affects the release of two key appetite hormones, ghrelin and peptide YY, while 90 minutes of weight lifting affects the level of only ghrelin, according to a new study. Taken together, the research shows that aerobic exercise is better at suppressing appetite than non-aerobic exercise and provides a possible explanation for how that happens.
Exercise Helps Increase Production of Neural Stem Cells in Mice Brains
Released November 18, 2008 - A new study confirms that exercise can reverse the age-related decline in the production of neural stem cells in the hippocampus of the mouse brain, and suggests that this happens because exercise restores a brain chemical which promotes the production and maturation of new stem cells.
Hypertension Develops Early, Silently, In African American Men
Released November 17, 2008 - Young and healthy African American men have higher central blood pressure and their blood vessels are stiffer compared to their white counterparts, signs that the African American men are developing hypertension early and with little outward sign, according to a new study. While the study found that central blood pressure was higher in the African American men, the study found no difference in brachial blood pressure between the two groups. Taken together, the findings suggest that hypertension may be developing undetected in young African American men and that measuring central blood pressure may be a better means of detecting the problem as it develops.
Fructose Sets Table For Weight Gain Without Warning
Released October 16, 2008 - Eating too much fructose can induce leptin resistance, a condition that can easily lead to becoming overweight when combined with a high-fat, high-calorie diet, according to a new study with rats. Although previous studies have shown that being leptin resistant can lead to rapid weight gain on a high-fat, high-calorie diet, this is the first study to show that leptin resistance can develop as a result of high fructose consumption. The study also showed for the first time that leptin resistance can develop silently, that is, with little indication that it is happening.
Resveratrol Prevents Fat Accumulation In Livers of ‘Alcoholic’ Mice
Released October 14, 2008 - The accumulation of fat in the liver as a result of chronic alcohol consumption could be prevented by consuming resveratrol, according to a new study with mice. The research found that resveratrol reduced the amount of fat produced in the liver of mice fed alcohol and, at the same time, increased the rate at which fat within the liver was broken down.
APS Sets Aside $50,000 to Help in Wake of Hurricane Ike
Released October 3, 2008 - The American Physiological Society has established the Hurricane Ike Relief Fund to provide unrestricted grants of up to $2,000 to support physiology graduate students and postdoctoral fellows who suffered losses as a result of Hurricane Ike.
For Overweight Patients With Insulin Sensitivity, Even One Session Of Exercise Can Improve Metabolic Health
Released September 25, 2008 - One out of every three Americans is obese. These individuals are at greater risk for additional diseases, since obesity leads to other health problems, such as diabetes. A team of researchers has examined the effect of exercise on fat accumulation in a new study involving five obese women. In one session the women overate and did not exercise; in a follow-on session they overate and did exercise. The findings indicate that even one bout of exercise helps to reduce the fat by-products inside the muscle, which affects the insulin sensitivity.
Researchers Discover That Growing Up Too Fast May Mean Dying Young In Honey Bees
Released September 25, 2008 - A new study examines how the onset, pace and duration of energetically-intense behaviors affect lifetime kinetics of reactive oxygen species-induced damage, anti-oxidant responses, physiological capacity and longevity in honey bees. This is the first to use such an approach to test the oxidative stress model of aging in a free-living organism.
Lessons From the Iditarod
Released September 25, 2008 - Racing sled dogs are best known for their “mushing” each March during the Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race, the world’s longest sled race. It is unclear how they can keep running, despite heavy blizzards, temperatures as low as –40°F, and winds up to 60 mph. Dr. Michael Davis has focused on the mysteries of this breed for more than a decade and explains some key findings.
Women Do Not Recover Their Muscle Strength As Fast As Men After Wearing A Cast
Released September 25, 2008 - Women are four times more likely than men to experience a broken forearm and require a cast (immobilization). To examine whether the effects of casting were similar between the sexes, researchers examined immobilized volunteers for a period of three weeks. They determined that while men were able to regain 99% of their strength within a week of removing the cast, women’s strength was still 30% lower when compared to before the cast was applied. These finding may have implications for the treatment of fractures based on gender lines. The study is believed to be the first report of sex-differences in muscle strength restoration following disuse.
Anabolic Steroids Still Provide a Competitive Edge in Power Lifting Even Years After Doping Has Ended
Release September 25, 2008 - Anabolic steroids are synthetic hormones derived from the human male hormone testosterone. The use of steroids has been suspected in professional baseball and other sports where building muscle strength, rather than endurance, is paramount. Power lifting is such a sport. A team of researchers has examined the impact of anabolic steroid use on power lifters years after the athletes had ceased to take the drugs. The researchers found that while physical traces of the drug no longer remained, changes in the shoulder and quadriceps still gave lifters an advantage years later.
Cholesterol-Lowering Drugs and the Effect on Muscle Repair and Regeneration
Released September 25, 2008 - Statins are powerful drugs that reduce “bad” cholesterol and thus cut the risk of a heart attack. While these medications offer tremendous benefits to millions, they can carry side effects for some. The most frequently reported consequence is fatigue, and about nine percent of patients report statin-related pain. Both can be exacerbated when statin doses are increased, or physical activity is added. The results of a new study may offer another note of caution for high-dose statin patients. Working with primary human satellite cell cultures, researchers have found that statins at higher doses may affect the ability of the skeletal muscles–which allow the body to move–to repair and regenerate themselves.
Galloping And Breathing At High Speed
Released September 25, 2008 - The coordination of two systems are key for any horse to walk, trot, gallop or win a race. The first are the lower limbs, which allow the animal to move along on a “spring-like” tendon. The second is a complicated respiratory system, which allows a horse to take in one breadth for every stride they make while racing. For more than a decade a team of researchers has been working to unlock the secrets of equines. Their findings may provide a springboard for better muscular horse health, and a different approach to breathing devices for humans.
Older People Who Diet Without Exercising Lose Valuable Muscle Mass
Released September 17, 2008 - A group of sedentary and overweight older people placed on a four-month exercise program not only became more fit, but burned off more fat, compared to older sedentary people who were placed on a diet but did not exercise. The new study also showed that when older people diet without exercising, they lose more lean muscle compared to those who exercise.
Substance Found In Fruits And Vegetables Reduces Likelihood Of The Flu
Released September 3, 2008 - Mice given quercetin, a naturally occurring substance found in fruits and vegetables, were less likely to contract the flu. The study also found that stressful exercise increased the susceptibility of mice to the flu, but quercetin canceled out that negative effect.
Researchers Block Damage to Fetal Brain Following Maternal Alcohol Consumption
Released August 11, 2008 - In a study on fetal alcohol syndrome, researchers were able to prevent the damage that alcohol causes to cells in a key area of the fetal brain by blocking acid sensitive potassium channels and preventing the acidic environment that alcohol produces. The cerebellum, the portion of the brain that is responsible for balance and muscle coordination, is particularly vulnerable to injury from alcohol during development.
Post-Exercise Caffeine Helps Muscles Refuel
Released July 1, 2008 - Recipe to recover more quickly from exercise: Finish workout, eat pasta, and wash down with five or six cups of strong coffee.
Testing for Recombinant Human Erythropoietin (rHuEpo)
Released June 26, 2008 - Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) is a genetically engineered hormone sometimes misused by high-performance athletes such as cyclists and marathon runners to boost their endurance. The potential misuse of the drug is detected in urine collected from athletes. Since the test was introduced in 2000, 33 labs around the world have been accredited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) to administer the procedure. During the last few years, the testing procedure has been criticized by some. Accordingly, a team of researchers investigated the quality of the test results at two WADA labs. They found that the detection power of the test at the two labs was poor.
Lifestyle Can Alter Gene Activity, Lead to Insulin Resistance
Released June 18, 2008 - A Finnish study of identical twins has found that physical inactivity and acquired obesity can impair expression of the genes which help the cells produce energy. The findings suggest that lifestyle, more than heredity, contributes to insulin resistance in people who are obese.
American Physiological Society Announces 2009 Subscription Prices
Released May 16, 2008 - The cost of subscribing to the 14 scientific journals published by the American Physiological Society will rise by a nominal 2.5 percent in 2009.
Mouse Study: When it Comes to Living Longer, It’s Better to Go Hungry Than Go Running
Released May 14, 2008 - A study investigating aging in mice has found that hormonal changes that occur when mice eat significantly less may help explain an already established phenomenon: a low calorie diet can extend the lifespan of rodents, a benefit that even regular exercise does not achieve.
Genetic Variation Linked To Sugary Food Consumption
Released May 14, 2008 - A new study finds that individuals with a specific genetic variation consistently consume more sugary foods. The study offers the first evidence of the role that a variation in the GLUT2 gene – a gene that controls sugar entry into the cells – has on sugar intake, and may help explain individual preferences for foods high in sugar.
USF Professor Gives Historical Look at Physiology and WWII Air War
Released April 11, 2008 - World War II-era physiologists helped solve physiological problems related to flight, research that helped pave the way for an Allied victory in the air, according to Jay B. Dean, of the University of South Florida College of Medicine.
New Scientific Discoveries Among Highlights of the 121st Annual Meeting of the APS
Released April 7, 2008 - Some 11,000 researchers, exhibitors, and other scientists will attend the conference, which is part of the Experimental Biology meeting being held at the San Diego Convention Center from April 5-9, 2008.
Ingredient Found In Green Tea Significantly Inhibits Breast Cancer Growth In Female Mice
Released April 7, 2008 - A new study conducted by researchers at the University of Mississippi researchers now finds that consuming EGCG, an antioxidant found in green tea, significantly inhibits breast tumor growth in female mice.
Exercise During Pregnancy Leads To A Healthier Heart In Moms- And Babies-To-Be
Released April 7, 2008 - A new study extends the knowledge of research in the area of pregnancy and exercise and has found that not only do women benefit from exercise in pregnancy, but their fetuses do too.
New Study Finds Uncontrollable Stress Worsens Symptoms Of Endometriosis
Released April 7, 2008 - A new study investigating the relationship between stress and the painful symptoms of endometriosis offers, for the first time, evidence of the negative consequences of stress in the progression of endometriosis, most likely through an effect on the immune system.
Where College Students Live Can Impact Their Weight, Eating And Exercise Habits
Released April 7, 2008 - A new study of female freshman dorm residents adds a new perspective to the “Freshman 15”, finding that those who avail themselves of school housing consume significantly higher numbers of calories and more sugar and — unlike their off-campus counterparts — engage in higher levels of calorie-curbing physical activity.
Backpack Straps Can Decrease Blood Flow In The Shoulder And Arm
Released April 7, 2008 - A team of physician researchers examined the effect heavy-loaded backpack straps can have on children. They found the straps can significantly increase pressure when the load is ten percent or more. Strap pressures with loads as small as ten percent of bodyweight can obstruct localized blood flow and contribute to shoulder fatigue.
For Some Who Have Lost Their Sense Of Smell, A Once Popular Asthma Drug Could Be Just What The Doctor Ordered
Released April 7, 2008 - Some seven percent of Americans have lost their sense of smell and with it their ability to enjoy the fragrance of flowers, foods and beverages. For individuals whose smell loss relates to the biochemistry of two common proteins, there is some good news. A team of researchers has found that a drug used long ago to help asthmatics can benefit some with smell loss.
New Study Finds Anticipating A Laugh Reduces Stress Hormones
Released April 7, 2008 - Researchers have found that the anticipation of a positive humorous laughter experience also reduces potentially detrimental stress hormones.
Treatment With An Antipsychotic Drug Found To Cause Changes In Metabolism Earlier Than Expected
Released April 7, 2008 - The second generation of antipsychotics – known as atypical antipsychotics (AAP) – began in 1990. These newer medicines have proven as effective in treating the positive aspects of the disease and more effective in combating the negative ones.
Testosterone Replacement Therapy (TRT) Beneficial In Men 60 And Older
Released April 7, 2008 - In one of the first clinical trials involving men over 60-85 years of age, researchers’ preliminary results indicate that testosterone treatment for five months has a positive effect on the bone markers of older men.
New Study Finds Adverse Effects Of Estrogen Replacement Therapy (ERT) Are Related To The Dose
Released April 7, 2008 - A new study in mice has examined whether adverse effects of estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) are related to the doses used. The study found that moderate and high doses of ERT increased problems in the kidney and heart.
MSU Professor Earns Bowditch Award for Work on Hypertension
Released March 26, 2008 - The American Physiological Society awarded Michigan State University Professor Stephanie W. Watts the 2008 Henry Pickering Bowditch Memorial Award for early-career achievement.
Specialized Nasal Sensory Cells Detect Irritants In The Environment
Released March 4, 2008 - Many chemicals, including most odorants in highly concentrated form, are irritating to the nose and can cause burning, stinging, warmth, itching or pain. The sensations occur when high levels of the chemical odors activate the trigeminal sensory system in the nasal cavity. It is not yet known how the initial process occurs but a small, important step towards understanding it has been made.
Taking the Fight Against Cancer to Heart
Released February 26, 2008 - Hormones produced by the heart eliminated human pancreatic cancer in more than three-quarters of the mice treated with the hormones and eliminated human breast cancer in two-thirds of the mice, according to a new study.
More than a Matter of Degree: Severe Asthma May Be a Different Form of the Disease
Released January 29, 2008 - A multi-center research project to investigate severe asthma has found a key physiological difference between severe and non-severe forms of the disease, a finding that could help explain why those with severe asthma do not respond well to treatment.
Mom’s Obesity During Conception May Set the Stage for Offspring’s Obesity
Released January 3, 2008- Investigators at the USDA-Arkansas Children’s Nutrition Center
studied whether fetal exposure to gestational obesity leads to a self-reinforcing vicious cycle of excessive weight gain and body fat which passes from mother to child. The results of the new study suggest they do.
A Human Hormone Blocker is Found to Help Prevent Obesity & Diabetes During Animal Testing
Released January 3, 2008 - A new study finds that a chemical found in the body is capable of promoting weight loss, improving insulin resistance and reversing diabetes in an animal model. The hormone is gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) receptor blockade.