High-Mileage Runners Expend Less Energy than Low-Mileage Runners
Released December 22, 2016 - Runners who consistently log high mileage show more neuromuscular changes that improve running efficiency than their low-mileage counterparts, according to researchers from Liverpool John Moores University in the United Kingdom. The paper is published in the Journal of Applied Physiology.
Aspirin Slows Spread of Colon, Pancreatic Cancer in Tumor Cells
Released December 14, 2016 - Researchers from Oregon Health and Science University have found that aspirin may slow the spread of some types of colon and pancreatic cancer cells. The paper is published in the American Journal of Physiology—Cell Physiology.
Inactive Lifestyle Linked to Ozone-Related Lung Disease
Released December 6, 2016 - An inactive lifestyle may increase the risk of environmentally induced asthma symptoms. In a new study published in the American Journal of Physiology—Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency researchers found that sedentary rats exposed to varying degrees of ozone, a type of air pollution, had higher markers for chronic disease when compared to counterparts that were more active.
Cigarette Smoke Exposure Increases Scar Tissue in the Kidney and Heart, Study Finds
Released December 1, 2016 - Smoking may lead to fibrosis in the heart and kidneys and can worsen existing kidney disease, according to a new study published in Physiological Genomics. The research team suggests that exposure to cigarette smoke negatively affects genetic messaging that controls tissue scarring.
Long-Term Use of Postmenopausal Estrogen Treatment May Impair Kidney Function
Released November 29, 2016 - Long-term estrogen treatment after menopause may increase the risk of new kidney damage and negatively affect women with abnormal kidney function. New research published in the American Journal of Physiology—Renal Physiology finds that markers for kidney damage worsened in a rat model of menopause as the length of estrogen treatment increased.
Smoke + Hot Temperatures = Increased SIDS Risk
Released November 15,2016 - Researchers are a step closer to understanding why cigarette smoke exposure during pregnancy may increase the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). SIDS is the unexplained, sudden death of a child younger than one year of age. A new study published in the American Journal of Physiology – Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology finds that prenatal cigarette smoke exposure in rats affected breathing responses and immune function of their offspring. Breathing and immune function are further negatively affected by high room temperatures.
Study Explores How Immune System Functions During Sleep
Released November 15, 2016 - Research published in the American Journal of Physiology – Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology gives new insight into sleep’s importance to overall health: it may give the immune system a chance to regroup at a time when the relative risk of infection is low. The research team observed that healthy volunteers had greatly reduced numbers of certain T cell subsets within three hours of falling asleep. While it’s unclear where the T cells go during sleep, the researchers have some guesses to where and why they migrate.
Integrative Biology of Exercise 7: Friday Research Highlights
Released November 4, 2016 - Read about today’s highlighted research abstracts.
Testosterone Levels Improve in Overweight, Obese Men after 12-Week Exercise Program
Released November 4, 2016 - Twelve weeks of aerobic exercise significantly boosted testosterone levels in overweight and obese men, according to researchers from Tsukuba University and Ryutsu Keizai University in Japan. Increased levels were highest among men who exercised vigorously. The new findings will be presented at the Integrative Biology of Exercise 7 meeting in Phoenix.
Exercise during Pregnancy May Reduce Markers of Aging in Offspring
Released November 4, 2016 - Exercise during pregnancy may be as effective in protecting the next generation from age-related health risks as efforts made during the offspring’s own adulthood, new research suggests. University of Kentucky researchers will present their findings at the Integrative Biology of Exercise 7 meeting.
Dad’s Preconception Exercise May Increase Obesity, Insulin Resistance Risk in Offspring
Released November 4, 2016 - Fathers who exercise regularly before their children are conceived may program their offspring's genes with an increased risk for metabolic disorders, according to new research from East Carolina University. The surprising results, to be presented at the Integrative Biology of Exercise 7 meeting, point to the identification of epigenetic markers that may change the process of diagnosis and management of chronic disease.
Exercise May Shield Against the Health Fallout of a Weeklong Overindulgence
Released November 3, 2016 - Previous studies show that as little as one week of overeating can impair glycemic control and insulin sensitivity. Just in time for holiday feasting, a new study by University of Michigan researchers finds that exercise can protect fat tissue from changes in inflammation levels and fat metabolism caused by a brief period of eating too many calories. Research will be presented at the Integrative Biology of Exercise meeting in Phoenix.
Hate Exercise? It May Be in Your Genes
Released November 3, 2016 - Genes, specifically those that modulate dopamine in the brain, may play a role in a person’s propensity to embrace or avoid exercise. Rodney Dishman of the University of Georgia will present findings from studies in rats and humans in his talk “Genetics of Exercise Avoidance” at the Integrative Biology of Exercise 7 meeting in Phoenix.
Regular Exercisers Still Face Health Risks From Too Much Sitting
Released November 3, 2016 - People who meet recommended weekly physical activity guidelines are still at risk of developing chronic disease if they spend too much non-exercising time sitting, new research suggests. Peter Katzmarzyk of the Pennington Biomedical Research Center will present findings at the Integrative Biology of Exercise 7 meeting.
Study Finds Weight Loss after Obesity Doesn’t Cut Risk of Certain Types of Cancer
Released November 3, 2016 - Losing weight may not protect against colon and liver cancer, even though obesity is associated with increased risk of certain types of gastrointestinal malignancy. The research, published in the American Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, was chosen as an APSselect article for November.
Integrative Biology of Exercise 7: Thursday Research Highlights
Released November 3, 2016 - Read about today’s highlighted research abstracts.
Community Colleges Play Essential Role in Physiology Education
Released October 19, 2016 - Despite community colleges serving an important role in the STEM education pipeline, physiology students and faculty at these schools are not getting the same professional development and collaboration opportunities as their counterparts at four-year institutions. Two community college faculty members addressed this disparity in Advances in Physiology Education.
Experts Convene to Discuss the Effects, Potential of Exercise throughout the Lifespan
Released October 18, 2016 - Hundreds of researchers on the leading edge of exercise science will meet at the Integrative Biology of Exercise meeting in Phoenix (Nov. 2–4). Symposia topics will cover brain cell stress responses, metabolic diseases, mitochondrial signaling, sedentary behavior, exercise and pregnancy, cardiovascular disease, aging, stem cells and more.
Ability to Process Speech Declines with Age
Released October 4, 2016 - Researchers have found clues to the causes of age-related hearing loss. The ability to track and understand speech in both quiet and noisy environments deteriorates due in part to speech processing declines in both the midbrain and cortex in older adults. The study, published in the Journal of Neurophysiology, was chosen as an APSselect article for October.
Interval Exercise Training Improves Blood Vessel Function in Older Adults
Released September 27, 2016 - Researchers have found that interval exercise training (resistance-based and cardiovascular) improves endothelial function in older adults. Resistance interval training in particular could help reduce the risk of heart disease in adults with type 2 diabetes. The study is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Heart and Circulatory Physiology.
Common Bacteria Show Promise for Treating Celiac Disease
Released September 6, 2016 - Researchers have isolated an enzyme from bacteria present in human saliva that has potential as a therapy for celiac disease (CD), an autoimmune disorder that causes severe digestive and other health problems among sufferers when they consume gluten. The study, published in the American Journal of Physiology—Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, was chosen as an APSselect article for September.
Nonhuman Primate Research Integral to Search for Future Cures
Released August 29, 2016 - Research in nonhuman primates (NHP) has led to some of the most significant medical advancements known today and will be essential to continued biomedical progress, according to a new white paper developed by experts from APS and 8 other biomedical research organizations. Read more highlights and find a link to the full paper “The Critical Role of Nonhuman Primates in Medical Research.”
Researchers Target Gut Bacteria to Reduce Weight Gain
Released August 26, 2016 - Adding engineered bacteria into the guts of mice both kept them from gaining weight and protected them against some of the negative health effects of obesity. Researchers will present their findings today at the American Physiological Society’s Inflammation, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease conference.
MicroRNAs May Link Inflammation and Heart Disease in Obese People
Released August 26, 2016 - Results from a new study suggest that small molecules known as microRNAs may be part of the pathway connecting inflammation with increased heart disease risk in obese people. The new findings will be presented at the American Physiological Society’s Inflammation, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease conference.
Could the Paleo Diet Benefit Heart Health?
Released August 26, 2016 - Findings from a small study suggest that people who followed the Paleo diet for only eight weeks experienced positive effects on heart health. Preliminary findings from this research will be presented at the American Physiological Society’s Inflammation, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease conference.
Stiff Arteries Linked with Memory Problems, Mouse Study Suggests
Released August 26, 2016 - Using a new mouse model, researchers have found that stiffer arteries can also negatively affect memory and other critical brain processes. The findings, which may eventually reveal how arterial stiffness leads to Alzheimer’s and other diseases involving dementia, will be presented at the American Physiological Society’s Inflammation, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease conference.
Researchers Explore Inflammation, Immune Response and Cardiovascular Disease
Released August 22, 2016 - More and more research points to the involvement of inflammation and the immune system on the development of cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular physiologists and immunologists will meet to explore how these mechanisms interact at the Inflammation, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease conference in Westminster, Colo., on Aug. 24–27, 2016.
Dad’s Fatty Diet Can Lead to Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome in Grand-Offspring
Released August 1, 2016 - Researchers report on how paternal intake of a high-fat diet causes changes in genes that lead to generational obesity and metabolic dysfunction, including body weight and fat mass increases and changes in blood pressure, triglyceride levels and fat metabolism. However, these effects in offspring can be significantly improved or abolished by feeding lower fat diet to subsequent generations. The article is published in AJP-Endocrinology and Metabolism and was chosen as an APSselect article for August.
Study in Rats Finds Maternal Intake of Past-Its-Prime Fish Oil Linked to Newborn Death
Released July 22, 2016 - Nearly 30 percent of newborn pups born to pregnant rats fed highly-oxidized (“off”) fish oil died within two days after birth, finds a new study by researchers at the Liggins Institute at the University of Auckland in New Zealand. The research is published in the American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology.
Extra Fat Does Not Act as an Insulator
Released July 5, 2016 - Carrying excess fat does not contribute to a warmer body in obese mice, a new study on the insulating effects of fat finds. The article is published in the American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism.
The Reason Behind Your Group Project Fail
Released June 22, 2016 - Group projects: Love them or hate them, working as a team is a necessary skill (or evil depending on who you ask). Researchers at Wright State University found that their natural science students anecdotally reported poor experiences working on teams. So they explored whether teaching students how to effectively function on teams positively affected learning outcomes and final grades.
Standardized-Exam Development Approach Improves Classroom Exams
Released June 21, 2016 - Blueprinting may improve consistency of exams in the classroom year to year. A medical school professor discusses how he successfully predicted students’ performance on a first-year medical course exam he developed using blueprinting at the APS Institute on Teaching and Learning Workshop.
Active Learning Science Courses May Improve Student Retention in STEM
Released June 21, 2016 - Having undergraduate students take part in scientific discovery may be a viable way to keep students interested in STEM, according to a growing body of research by science educators and education researchers. Experts summarize the successes and challenges of discovery-based research courses at the APS Institute on Teaching and Learning Workshop.
Science Educators Convene to Discuss What’s Next and New in Teaching Physiology
Released June 20, 2016 - Dozens of undergraduate and professional school physiology educators will attend this workshop-intensive meeting to discuss best practices in physiology education, including: the changing role of students and instructors in today’s classrooms; new teaching strategies that attendees can employ in their own classrooms; new research on student learning behaviors; and challenges of engaging millennial learners.
June APSselect Research Highlights
Released June 7, 2016 - Research selected as part of the APSselect program is considered the month’s “best of the best” by the APS journals editors-in-chiefs. This month’s highlighted research includes a study on the consequences of rehydrating with soda and how chronic alcohol exposure can lead to pancreatic problems.
Excess Consumption of Phosphates in Processed Foods Promotes Hypertension in Rats
Released June 1, 2016 - Excess consumption of phosphate—commonly used in foods as a preservative, flavor enhancer and color stabilizer—over-activates nerves that raise blood pressure, leading to abnormally high blood pressure, a new study in the American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology reports. The findings highlight the need for further studies in humans to determine if the amount of added phosphate should be included on food labels.
Early-Life Stress Causes Digestive Problems and Anxiety in Rats
Released May 26, 2016 - Traumatic events early in life can increase levels of norepinephrine—the primary hormone responsible for preparing the body to react to stressful situations—in the gut, increasing the risk of developing chronic indigestion and anxiety during adulthood, a new study in the American Journal of Physiology—Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology reports.
APS Awards $403,200 to Its 2016 Undergraduate Research Fellows
Released May 25, 2016 - APS has announced the 74 recipients of its 2016 Undergraduate Summer Research Fellowships. Recipients of the Society’s five summer fellowship programs spend an average of 10 weeks in the laboratory of an established scientist and APS member.
Chronic Drinking Interferes with Absorption of Critical Vitamins by Pancreas
Released May 12, 2016 - Chronic exposure to alcohol interferes with the pancreas’ ability to absorb vitamin C, potentially predisposing the body to pancreatitis and other pancreatic diseases, a new study in the American Journal of Physiology—Cell Physiology reports. The findings provide a link between chronic alcohol use and poor pancreatic health.
Study Shows How Atherosclerosis and Osteoporosis Are Linked
Released May 5, 2016 - Patients with atherosclerosis are at a higher risk of osteoporosis. A new study published in the American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism reports that atherosclerosis reduces the number of bone-forming cells, leading to loss of bone density. This study is highlighted as one of this month’s “best of the best” as part of the American Physiological Society’s APSselect program.
New Insight May Lead to Better Detection, Treatment of Common Autoimmune Disease
Released May 3, 2016 - Sjögren's syndrome affects an estimated four million people in the U.S., but diagnosis is often delayed because its symptoms are similar to other conditions. A new study in the American Journal of Physiology—Cell Physiology describes a protein with the potential to be an earlier and more precise indicator of the disease.
More than Just Eyes and Skin: Vitamin A Affects the Heart
Released April 29, 2016 - Vitamin A is important for heart development in embryos, but whether it has a role in maintaining heart health is unclear. A new study in the American Journal of Physiology—Heart and Circulatory Physiology finds that the heart is able to respond to vitamin A and the amount of vitamin A present has an effect. However, whether the effects are beneficial or harmful is still a mystery.
Jane Reckelhoff, PhD, Becomes 89th President of the American Physiological Society
Released April 20, 2016 - Jane Reckelhoff, PhD, was installed as APS president in April, immediately following the APS annual meeting at Experimental Biology 2016. Reckelhoff is a Billy S. Guyton Distinguished Professor, director of the Women’s Health Research Center, director of research development for the Office of Research and Sponsored Programs and professor of physiology and biophysics at the University of Mississippi Medical Center.
New Officers Join Leadership of the American Physiological Society
Released April 20, 2016 - APS is pleased to introduce the new members of its leadership: President Elect Dennis Brown, PhD, and Councilors Jennifer S. Pollock, PhD; Willis K. Samson, PhD; and Harold D. Schultz, PhD. The new officers were elected by the APS membership and took office in April at the Experimental Biology meeting in San Diego.
Health Improvements after Gastric-Bypass Surgery Start Well before Dramatic Weight Loss Begins
Released April 6, 2016 - New research presented at the Experimental Biology 2016 meeting suggests that fat and blood sugar control and cardiovascular health start improving in the early stages of recovery before dramatic weight loss occurs.
Move Over, Polar Bear Plunge: Ice Swimming Is Next Big Extreme Winter Water Sport
Released April 5, 2016 - Hundreds of athletes around the globe are competing in one-mile ice swims. Performance and human physiological response in water 5 degrees Celsius or less has not been well-studied. Researchers will present new data on how age, gender and environmental factors such as wind chill affect ice swimming performance at Experimental Biology 2016.
The Down Side of Your Sweet and Salty Addiction: Rapid Onset High Blood Pressure?
Released April 5, 2016 - High levels of fructose similar to amounts consumed within the American diet may predispose individuals to fast-onset, salt-sensitive hypertension, according to New research presented at the Experimental Biology 2016 meeting in San Diego.
Exercise Reduces Cardiovascular Risk Factors from Constant Stress
Released April 5, 2016 - Constant stress is associated with signs of poor blood vessel health and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. New research presented at the Experimental Biology 2016 meeting in San Diego finds that aerobic exercise kept the blood vessels of stressed rats working normally.
Fat Stunts Growth of Tobacco Hornworm Caterpillars
Released April 4, 2016 - Tobacco hornworm caterpillars eating a high-fat diet are smaller than their counterparts eating a medium- or low-fat diet. New research presented at the Experimental Biology 2016 meeting found that fat decreased the caterpillars’ food consumption, leading to the smaller body size.
Do More Uphill Sprints! Higher Anaerobic Fitness Gives Edge to Mountain Ultra-Marathon Runners
Released April 3, 2016 - New research presented at the Experimental Biology 2016 meeting suggests a runner’s pre-race anaerobic fitness capacity may be a key factor in determining who will have the fastest finishing times during grueling 50 km (31 mile) mountain ultramarathons.
Genetically Modified Mouse’s Brain Lights Up As It Thinks
Released April 1, 2016 - Scientists have developed a genetically modified mouse with brain cells that light up when active. The new mouse will allow scientists to see how the brain processes information. This study is published in Journal of Neurophysiology and is highlighted as one of this month’s “best of the best” as part of the American Physiological Society’s APSselect program.
APS 2016 Distinguished Lectureship Award Winners to Present Talks at Experimental Biology
Released March 31, 2016 - APS is pleased to recognize the outstanding honorees who will present their award lectures at the Experimental Biology 2016 meeting in San Diego.
Nobel Laureate, Leading Experts Speak in APS President’s Symposium Series
Released March 30, 2016 - Leading research experts will discuss the physiology behind organ injury in alcohol abuse, the health impacts of diet, and adaptations to stress as part of the President's Symposium Series at the Experimental Biology 2016 meeting in San Diego. The series is anchored with the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Lecture by Nobel Laureate Roger Tsien, PhD.
The Brain May Show Signs of Aging Earlier than Old Age
Released March 17, 2016 - A new study published in Physiological Genomics suggests that the brain shows signs of aging earlier than old age. The study found that the microglia cells—the immune cells of the brain—in middle-aged mice already showed altered activity seen in microglia from older mice.
Review Article Uncovers Clues to the Causes, Risk Factors for and Prevention of Drowning Deaths
Released March 17, 2016 - An international team of researchers have published an extensive review of scientific literature on factors involved drowning fatalities in the journal Physiology. They outline how the fear of drowning, fitness level, fatigue, intoxication and other factors can contribute to negative outcomes and highlight warnings for people who may be at increased risk of drowning, such as those with heart conditions.
Turning on Blood Flow Turns on Fat-Burning Brown Fat in Mice
Released March 1, 2016 - Increasing the blood flow in brown fat causes it to burn more calories in mice and may help treat obesity, a new study in the Journal of Applied Physiology reports. This research is highlighted as one of this month’s “best of the best” as part of the American Physiological Society’s APSselect program.
Aging May Worsen the Effects of a High-Salt Diet
Released February 9, 2016 -Age significantly impaired the ability of rats to get rid of excess sodium when exposed to a high-salt diet, according to research published in the American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. Findings could have implications for salt consumption in the elderly; suggest older people could be at greater risk for the negative consequences of eating a high-salt diet.
Rat Study Shows that Renal Denervation Helps to Bring Drug-Resistant Hypertension under Control
Released February 9, 2016 - Most clinical studies have shown that renal denervation—a procedure that disrupts the nerves in the kidneys and prevents them from relaying signals—can treat drug-resistant hypertension, although a number have shown the procedure to be ineffective. A new study in American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology supports that renal denervation can treat hypertension and suggests that failures may be due to incomplete procedure. This research is highlighted as one of this month’s “best of the best” as part of the American Physiological Society’s APSselect program.
Small Reduction in Food Intake May Be Enough to Slow Polycystic Kidney Disease
Released January 28, 2016 - A small reduction in food intake—less than required to cause weight loss—dramatically slowed the development of a common genetic disorder called autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in mice, a new study in American Journal of Physiology—Renal Physiology reports. There are no approved treatments for ADPKD in the U.S., and food reduction would be an ideal therapy because it most likely does not have side effects and is cost-effective, says the lead author.
Study May Explain Why Stroke Risk in Women Changes after Menopause
Released January 19, 2016 - Overactive microglia—the brain’s immune cells—may worsen the damage from brain injury after stroke or head impact. A new study in American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism reports that a compound produced from estrogen called 2-methoxyestradiol calms overactive microglia. The findings offer an explanation for why stroke risk in women changes after menopause and point to potential treatments for treating brain injuries in men and women.
Not the Weaker Sex: Estrogen Protects Women Against the Flu, Study Finds
Released January 12, 2016 - A new study published in American Journal of Physiology—Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology finds that the female sex hormone estrogen has anti-viral effects against the influenza A virus, commonly known as the flu. The study supports why the flu may hit men harder than women.
Beyond Dance: Ballet Training Improves Muscle Coordination in Everyday Activities
Released January 5, 2016 - A new study in Journal of Neurophysiology reports that professional ballet dancers have more control over their muscles than individuals with no dance training. This research is highlighted as one of this month’s “best of the best” as part of the American Physiological Society’s APSselect program.