The American Physiological Society Press Release

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APS Contact: Maggie Kuo


Phone: 301.634.7253

Twitter: @APSPhysiology

Why the Bloating During Menopause? Blame the Hormones or the Lack of Them

Bethesda, Md. (June 22, 2015)—Water retention—a cause of bloating—is associated with changes in sex hormone levels. Many women experience water retention during menopause, but how sex hormones affect water balance is not understood. A new study in in the American Journal of Physiology—Renal Physiology sheds light on the connection, finding that sex hormones can directly control how the body reabsorbs water.

Water level in the body is maintained by the kidneys, which controls the amount of water reabsorbed from the blood they filter. Water is reabsorbed through channels called aquaporin 2 (AQP2) that are found along the kidneys’ ducts. How much is reabsorbed is affected by the amount of AQP2.

Female rats with their ovaries removed produced less urine and had more AQP2 channels in their kidneys compared with female rats with ovaries. Treating the rats with the female sex hormone estradiol increased urine output and decreased the amount of AQP2. According to the researchers, the data supported that estradiol had an inhibitory effect on AQP2, meaning the lower the estradiol level, the greater the water retention. Changes in sex hormone levels over the menstrual cycle may affect the kidneys’ water handling, and the reduced level of hormones during menopause may explain the greater water retention, the researchers wrote.

The article “Estradiol regulates AQP2 expression in the collecting ducta novel inhibitory role for estrogen receptor alpha” is published ahead-of-print in the American Journal of Physiology—Renal Physiology.

NOTE TO JOURNALISTS: To schedule an interview with a member of the research team, please contact Maggie Kuo at 301-634-7253.

Physiology is the study of how molecules, cells, tissues and organs function in health and disease. Established in 1887, the American Physiological Society (APS) was the first U.S. society in the biomedical sciences field. The Society represents more than 10,500 members and publishes 15 peer-reviewed journals with a worldwide readership.



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Released January 12, 2016 - A new study published in American Journal of Physiology—Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology finds that the female sex hormone estrogen has anti-viral effects against the influenza A virus, commonly known as the flu. The study supports why the flu may hit men harder than women.