Public / Press

Physiology is the study of how the body works under normal conditions. We use physiology when we exercise, read, breathe, sleep, eat, move, or do just about anything.

In this section you will learn "what’s new?" in human and animal physiology. Our information comes directly from the new scientific discoveries published in our research journals and presentations made by our members and other scientists at our meetings.

We explain physiology for the non-scientist through:

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Press Releases and Announcements

High-Fat Diet May Change Breast Milk Makeup, Affect Baby’s Health

Released November 21, 2017 - New research suggests that following a high-fat diet during lactation—regardless of diet during pregnancy—alters RNA activity in breast milk. The changes in genetic material may increase the risk of metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes in offspring. The article is published ahead of print in Physiological Genomics.

Getting Enough Sleep May Help Skin Wounds Heal Faster

Released November 14, 2017 - Getting more sleep may help wound healing, and a nutrition supplement may also help, according to a new study. The paper, published ahead of print in the Journal of Applied Physiology, was chosen as an APSselect article for November.

Red Blood Cell Function, Renewal the Focus of Sickle Cell Conference Symposium

Released November 8, 2017 - Researchers will meet to discuss the physiology, function and future of red blood cells (RBCs) in sickle cell disease (SCD) at the “Red Cell Physiology” symposium during the APS Physiological and Pathophysiological Consequences of Sickle Cell Disease conference in Washington, D.C.

Out of Balance: Gut Bacterial Makeup May Exacerbate Pain in Sickle Cell Disease

Released November 7, 2017 - An overabundance of the bacteria Veillonella in the digestive tract may increase pain in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). Researchers from Howard University will present their findings at the APS Physiological and Pathophysiological Consequences of Sickle Cell Disease conference in Washington, D.C.

Genotype May Identify Complication Likelihood in Sickle Cell Patients

Released November 7, 2017 - Researchers have found a genotype that could help identify sickle cell disease (SCD) patients at greatest risk of common, yet severe, complications of SCD. The findings will be presented at the APS Physiological and Pathophysiological Consequences of Sickle Cell Disease conference in Washington, D.C.

Stress, Fear of Pain May Be Cause of Painful Sickle Cell Episodes

Released November 6, 2017 - Mental stress and the anticipation of pain may cause blood vessels to narrow and trigger episodes of severe pain (vaso-occlusive crisis, or VOC) in sickle cell disease (SCD). A team of researchers from California will present their findings at the APS Physiological and Pathophysiological Consequences of Sickle Cell Disease conference in Washington, D.C.

Sickle Cell Patients Experience Improved Quality of Life with Alzheimer’s Drug

Released November 6, 2017 - A popular drug commonly used to treat Alzheimer’s disease has shown promise in laboratory and clinical trials for treating patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). Researchers have found that the molecule memantine stabilizes the development, longevity and function of red blood cells and is well-tolerated by SCD patients. The findings will be presented at the APS Physiological and Pathophysiological Consequences of Sickle Cell Disease conference in Washington, D.C.

APS Joins with Other Prestigious Scholarly Publishers to Launch the Scientific Society Publisher Alliance (SSPA)

Released November 6, 2017 - APS, along with 10 other prestigious not-for-profit scientific membership societies, today announced the launch of the Scientific Society Publisher Alliance (SSPA) (byscientistsforscience.org), an initiative focused on building awareness of and support for publication of scientific research by scientist-run scientific societies. The SSPA seeks to emphasize the value of publishing vital scientific research in scholarly journals managed by working scientists, and edited and peer reviewed in a fair and supportive manner by working scientists.

Sickle Cell Conference to Discuss Causes and Pathways to a Cure

Released October 31, 2017 - Leading experts in the field of sickle cell disease (SCD) research will convene in Washington, D.C., for the Physiological and Pathophysiological Consequences of Sickle Cell Disease conference (November 6–8). The conference will explore SCD—the world’s most prevalent single gene mutation disease—and new research on preventing and reversing its deadly consequences.

Hypertension in Women: Review Calls for More Data to Improve Treatment

Released October 26, 2017 - Women account for half of all cases of high blood pressure (hypertension) in the U.S., yet the majority of hypertension research focuses on men. A review of more than 80 studies highlights sex differences in hypertension-related kidney (renal) disease and explores possible reasons why women respond differently than men. The article, published in the American Journal of Physiology—Renal Physiology, emphasizes the need for more hypertension research in females.

Exercise Nerve Response in Type 1 Diabetes Worsens over Time

Released October 18, 2017 - A new study finds that late-stage type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) weakens the autonomic reflex that regulates blood pressure during exercise, impairing circulation, nerve function and exercise tolerance. The study is published in the American Journal of Physiology—Heart and Circulatory Physiology.

Children with ADHD Likely to Have Touch-Processing Abnormalities

Released October 10, 2017 - Children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) are likely to also have trouble with touch (tactile) processing. A new study finds that children with ADHD fare worse on several tests of tactile functioning, including reaction time and detecting a weak stimulus on the skin (detection threshold). The article, published ahead of print in the Journal of Neurophysiology, was chosen as an APSselect article for October.

Scientists Find New RNA Class in Kidneys Is Linked to Hypertension

Released October 5, 2017 - Researchers from the University of Toledo (Ohio) College of Medicine and Life Sciences have discovered more than 12,000 different types of noncoding RNA (circRNAs) in the kidney tissue of rats. This type of genetic material, previously thought to have no function, may play a significant role in regulating blood pressure in heart and kidney disease. The article, published in Physiological Genomics, was chosen as an APSselect article for October.

Review Study Explores Causes of Physical Inactivity

Released October 4, 2017 - A new review of more than 500 studies examines the environmental and physiological causes of physical inactivity and the role it plays in the development of chronic disease. The article is published in Physiological Reviews.

Get Fewer Antioxidants? Lower Levels May Lessen Damage from Colitis

Released September 28, 2017 - A new study finds that lowering the levels of an antioxidant in the colon has an unexpectedly positive effect on gastrointestinal (GI) inflammation. The paper is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology.

APS Establishes Hurricane Relief Fund Following Devastating Hurricane Season

Released September 27, 2017 - The American Physiological Society (APS) has allocated $100,000 for a Hurricane Relief Fund to assist young APS member-researchers in their rebuilding efforts following Hurricanes Harvey, Irma and Maria. Applications are now being accepted for grants of up to $2,000 which are intended to help graduate students and postdoctoral fellows impacted by the storms to replace belongings, pay for relocation costs and get back on their feet.

Preemies’ Separation from Mom + Stress May Increase Health Risks in Adulthood

Released September 20, 2017 - A new study suggests that physiological stress in premature infants combined with separation from their mothers may have lasting effects into adulthood. In clinical studies, these factors have been found to increase the risk of obesity and insulin resistance, leading to metabolic disorders such as metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The study is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology.

Special Awards Edition APS News Update - September 15, 2017

APS' Special Awards Edition of the News Update.

Electrical Stimulation Improves Paralyzed Patients’ Function

Released September 14, 2017 - Nearly 282,000 people in the U.S. live with paralysis following a spinal cord injury (SCI). A review of more than 90 studies found that electrical stimulation may help restore function in those paralyzed after SCI. The article is published in Physiology.

New Generation Drugs May Hold Key to Alternative Erectile Dysfunction Treatment

Released September 6, 2017 - Close to 70 percent of men with erectile dysfunction (ED) respond to the ED drug sildenafil. However, only about 50 percent of men with diabetes—a population commonly affected by ED—achieve positive results with sildenafil. Researchers from the Smooth Muscle Research Centre at the Dundalk Institute of Technology, in Dundalk, Ireland, are studying two new drugs that may give men with diabetes—and others for whom conventional treatment is ineffective—new hope for treating ED. The article is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Cell Physiology.

Young and Female: A Good Combination for Kidney Health?

Released September 5, 2017 - Young females may have the greatest level of protection against acute kidney injury (AKI) caused by the chemotherapy drug Cisplatin, commonly used to treat lung, ovarian, bladder and stomach cancer. Nearly a third of all people who are treated with Cisplatin develop AKI. The study—the first to investigate combined sex and age differences in the response to kidney injury—is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Renal Physiology and was chosen as an APSselect article for September.

Heat Could Aid the Treatment of Cancer, Organ Transplant and Autoimmune Diseases

Released August 29, 2017 - Heat therapy may be a promising treatment in the fight against cancer, autoimmune problems and efforts to avoid organ rejection in transplant patients, according to researchers at the University of Kentucky. The research team exposed colorectal cancer cells and T-cells to temperatures lower and higher than normal body temperatures to observe the effects of temperature change on cellular energy production. They found that heat exposure can slow cancer cell growth and activate T-cells to fight infection. They will present their findings at the Physiological Bioenergetics: Mitochondria from Bench to Bedside conference in San Diego.

Turtles May Hold the Key to Protecting Human Hearts after Heart Attack

Released August 28, 2017 - In humans, going just minutes without oxygen—such as during a heart attack or stroke—can cause devastating damage to the heart. Conversely, freshwater turtles hibernate for months at the bottom of frozen lakes and awake with no heart damage in the spring. Researchers at Aarhus University in Denmark and the University of Cambridge in the U.K. are looking to these turtles to understand the mechanisms that protect them from heart damage. “We investigated whether turtles may avoid oxidative damage in the heart after winter hibernation by specifically inhibiting the mitochondrial protein complex I, which is responsible for the production of ROS,” Amanda Bundgård, lead author of the study, explained. The research team will present their findings at the Physiological Bioenergetics: Mitochondria from Bench to Bedside conference in San Diego.

Calorie Reduction + Exercise = Better Muscle Function in Older Adults

Released August 28, 2017 - Improved muscle performance starts with better mitochondrial function. Older adults who are overweight may improve their muscle function with a weight loss program that combines exercise and calorie reduction, according to researchers from Florida Hospital, who present their findings today at the Physiological Bioenergetics: Mitochondria from Bench to Bedside conference in San Diego.

Taking It to the Clinic: Using Mitochondria to Diagnose Disease

Released August 28, 2017 - Leading researchers will discuss advances in understanding the role of mitochondria in health and disease and the use of the “powerhouse of the cell” as a clinical diagnostic tool during the “Translating the Mitochondria—Taking It to the Clinic” symposium at the American Physiological Society’s (APS’s) Physiological Bioenergetics: Mitochondria from Bench to Bedside conference.

Mom’s, Not Dad’s, Mitochondria Create Healthy Embryos

Released August 28, 2017 - Mammal embryos shed paternal mitochondria within days of fertilization, perhaps to ensure the offspring a healthy life, a new study shows. Researchers from the California Institute of Technology will present their findings today at the Physiological Bioenergetics: Mitochondria from Bench to Bedside conference in San Diego.

Playing the Publishing ‘Game’: Making the Most of Reviewers’ Comments

Released August 24, 2017 - Reviewer comments on a scientific manuscript may seem critical and personal to authors, but they are generally well thought out and meant to enhance the understandability and integrity of the paper. Douglas Curran-Everett, PhD, editor-in-chief of Advances in Physiology Education, acknowledges the challenges of receiving review comments and offers tips to achieving more positive outcomes when submitting scientific manuscripts.

Using Facebook to Supplement Neuroscience Studies Boosts Students’ Grades

Released August 24, 2017 - Some Saudi Arabian medical students are using Facebook as both an outlet for social networking and an effective learning tool. The study is published ahead of print in Advances in Physiology Education.

High Achievers in Competitive Courses More Likely to Cheat on College Exams

Released August 24, 2017 - A new study finds that students who are known as “high achievers” and take highly competitive courses are the most likely to cheat on their exams. The article is published ahead of print in Advances in Physiology Education.

Leading Experts Explore the Clinical, Translational Applications of Mitochondria

Released August 22, 2017 - Cross-disciplinary experts who study the mitochondria will convene at the APS “Physiological Bioenergetics: Mitochondria from Bench to Bedside” conference August 27–30 in San Diego. “While mitochondria are traditionally known as the powerhouse of the cell, accumulating studies demonstrate that the shape, movement and function of these organelles control much more in the cell beyond energy levels,” Sruti Shiva, PhD, researcher at the University of Pittsburgh and chair of the conference organizing committee, said.

miRNA Could Be Key in Predicting Atrial Fibrillation Risk Following Surgery

Released August 13, 2017 - One in three patients who undergo cardiac surgery—such as coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) or heart valve procedures—experience an irregular heartbeat after surgery (postoperative atrial fibrillation or PoAF). Researchers at Aurora Research Institute and Aurora Cardiovascular Services in Milwaukee have identified a molecule that can be measured with a noninvasive blood test to help predict the patients most at risk of this postoperative complication. They will present their findings at the Cardiovascular Aging: Old Friends and New Frontiers conference in Westminster, Colo.

Cardiovascular Aging Symposium Explores Dysfunction and Disease Development

Released August 12, 2017 - During the “Novel Implications for Blood Flow and Vascular Dysfunction in Non-cardiovascular Related Disease” symposium at the APS Cardiovascular Aging: New Frontiers and Old Friends conference, researchers will present findings that emphasize the interaction between age-related cardiovascular dysfunction and disease whose risk increases with age.

Menopausal Status May Better Predict Blood Vessel Health in Women than Fitness Level

Released August 12, 2017 - High physical fitness is known to be related to enhanced blood vessel dilation and blood flow (endothelial function) in aging men. However, for women, endothelial function and the effect of exercise may be related more to menopausal status than fitness. Researchers from the University of Massachusetts Amherst will present their findings today at the Cardiovascular Aging: New Frontiers and Old Friends conference in Westminster, Colo.

E-Cigarette Use Accelerates Effects of Cardiovascular Aging

Released August 12, 2017 - A new study suggests that a single exposure to e-cigarette (e-cig) vapor may be enough to impair vascular function. Researchers from West Virginia University will present findings today at the Cardiovascular Aging: New Frontiers and Old Friends meeting in Westminster, Colo.

Researchers Explore a Better Way to Measure Blood Pressure

Released August 12, 2017 - Automatic blood pressure devices are often used to assess blood pressure levels at home and in the clinic. But these automatic devices are prone to significant errors, sometimes leading to the prescription of blood pressure-lowering medications to patients who don’t actually need them. Researchers at the Jerusalem College of Technology and the Shaare Zedek Medical Center in Israel have developed a method to more accurately measure systolic blood pressure. They will present their findings at the Cardiovascular Aging: New Frontiers and Old Friends conference in Westminster, Colo.

Strategies to Optimize and Slow Cardiovascular Aging

Released August 11, 2017 - Heart disease remains the leading cause of death in the U.S. and growing older is the greatest—and most inevitable—risk factor for it. So what, if anything, can we do to keep our hearts and arteries as healthy as possible for as long as possible? Keynote speaker Douglas Seals, PhD, of the University of Colorado Boulder, will lay the groundwork of what we know and the promising research that could combat cardiovascular aging in his presentation “Strategies for Optimal Cardiovascular Aging.” Seals will present his lecture at the Cardiovascular Aging: New Frontiers and Old Friends conference in Westminster, Colo.

Caffeine Shortens Recovery Time from General Anesthesia

Released August 1, 2017 - Caffeine helps quickly boost wakefulness following general anesthesia, a new study finds. The stimulant—used daily by more than 90 percent of adults in the U.S.—appears to alter physiological function in two different ways to shorten recovery time. The paper, published ahead of print in the Journal of Neurophysiology, was chosen as an APSselect article for August.

Staying Young at Heart's the Focus of Upcoming Cardiovascular Conference

Released July 27, 2017 - Aging—the No. 1 risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease—and maintaining cardiovascular health is the main focus of the upcoming APS conference “Cardiovascular Aging: New Frontiers and Old Friends.” The conference—which will convene exercise, aging, cardiovascular and other researchers—will be held August 11–14, 2017, in Westminster, Colo.

Pollution Exposure during Pregnancy Increases Asthma Risk for Three Generations

Released July 18, 2017 - Exposure to environmental pollutants during pregnancy may increase the risk of asthma for as many as three consecutive generations, according to new research. The study is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology.

Aerobic Exercise Found Safe for Non-Dialysis Kidney Disease Patients

Released July 12, 2017 - A new study finds that moderate exercise does not impair kidney function in some people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The study—the first to analyze the effects of exercise on kidney disease that does not require dialysis—is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Renal Physiology. The paper was chosen as an APSselect article for July.

Stroke Recovery Window May Be Wider than We Think

Released July 12, 2017 - Stroke survivors may experience delayed recovery of limb function up to decades after injury, according to a new case study. The article, published ahead of print in the Journal of Neurophysiology, was chosen as an APSselect article for July.

Genetic Differences May Contribute to Changes in Astronauts’ Eyes

Released June 29, 2017 - Researchers have found that genetic variation may increase susceptibility of some astronauts to develop higher-than-normal carbon dioxide levels in the blood, which may contribute to eye abnormalities, including grooved bands on the retina in the eye and swelling of the optic nerve. The study is published in Physiological Reports.

Older Adults’ Lungs Remain Strong during Exercise

Released June 20, 2017 - Highly active older adults experience no limitations in the lungs’ capacity to exchange gases (lung-diffusing capacity) during physical activity, researchers have found. The study is published in the Journal of Applied Physiology.

APS Awards $267,350 to Its 2017 Undergraduate Research Fellows

Released June 13, 2017 - The American Physiological Society is pleased to announce it's 2017 Undergraduate Summer Research Fellows. Recipients of the Society’s four summer fellowship programs spend an average of 10 weeks in the laboratory of an established scientist and APS member.

Global Warming May Cause Spike in Asthma, Allergy Symptoms

Released June 6, 2017 - A new study finds that exposure to a widespread outdoor fungus can increase cell damage (oxidative stress) in the airways. This spike weakens the airways’ barrier defense system that, when functioning normally, removes infection- and allergy-causing organisms (mucociliary clearance). The study, published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Cell Physiology, was chosen as an APSselect article for June.

Dennis Brown, PhD, Becomes 90th President of the American Physiological Society

Released May 24, 2017 - Dennis Brown, PhD, assumed the presidency of the American Physiological Society (APS) in April, immediately following the APS annual meeting at Experimental Biology 2017. Brown is a professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School (HMS) and director of the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) program in membrane biology in the division of nephrology. He also serves as associate director of the MGH Center for Systems Biology and director of the MGH Office for Research Career Development (ORCD).

New Officers Begin Terms at American Physiological Society

Released May 24, 2017 - The American Physiological Society (APS) is pleased to announce its new leadership: President Elect Jeff M. Sands, MD, and Councilors Charles H. Lang, PhD; Merry L. Lindsey, PhD; and Ronald M. Lynch, PhD. The new officers were elected by the APS membership and took office last month at the Experimental Biology meeting in Chicago.

Exposure to Alcohol Before Birth May Make Drinking More Appealing to Teens

Released May 18, 2017 - A new study suggests that fetal alcohol exposure (FAE) reduces the taste system’s responsiveness to the bitter flavor and burning sensation of many varieties of alcoholic beverages. These factors make alcohol unappealing to some people, but, for reasons that are unclear, are less of a deterrent in young people exposed to alcohol before birth. The study is published ahead of print in the Journal of Neurophysiology.

Beetroot Juice May Provide Benefits to Heart Disease Patients

Released May 10, 2017 - A new study finds that dietary nitrate—a compound that dilates blood vessels to decrease blood pressure—may reduce overstimulation of the sympathetic nervous system that occurs with heart disease. The research team looked specifically at beetroot juice, a source of dietary nitrate, to explore its use as a future targeted treatment option for people with cardiovascular disease. The study, published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Heart and Circulatory Physiology, is the first to study the effects of nitrate supplementation on sympathetic nerve activity.

Prolonged Military-Style Training Causes Changes to Intestinal Bacteria

Released May 4, 2017 - A new study finds that long periods of physiological stress can change the composition of microorganisms residing in the intestines (intestinal microbiota), which could increase health risks in endurance athletes and military personnel. The study, published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, is the first to study the response of the intestinal microbiota during military training. The manuscript was chosen as an APSselect article for May.

Can Aromatherapy Calm Competition Horses?

Released April 26, 2017 - Although studies suggest that inhaling certain scents may reduce stress in humans, aromatherapy is relatively unexplored in veterinary medicine. But new research presented today at the Experimental Biology 2017 meeting in Chicago raises the question of whether aromatherapy may be beneficial to horses as well.

Intense Training without Proper Recovery May Compromise Bone Health in Elite Rowers

Released April 25, 2017 - Bone mineral density, an indicator of bone strength, typically increases with regular exercise acting as a protective mechanism against bone fractures and osteoporosis. But a new study suggests that the extended, high-intensity training sessions of elite athletes could reverse beneficial bone changes. Researchers from Brock University in Canada will present their findings today at the Experimental Biology 2017 meeting in Chicago.

Vitamin A + High-Fat Diet = Increased Risk for Obesity, Diabetes

Released April 25, 2017 - Vitamin A is an essential nutrient that the human body needs to function properly. But new research presented today at the Experimental Biology 2017 meeting in Chicago suggests that normal levels of vitamin A within a high-fat diet can negatively affect expression of liver genes associated with glucose and fat metabolism.

EB Highlights - Wednesday, April 26, 2017

APS EB Highlights for Wednesday, April 26, 2017.

How Walking Benefits the Brain

Released April 24, 2017 - Researchers at New Mexico Highlands University (NMHU) found that the foot’s impact during walking sends pressure waves through the arteries that significantly modify and can increase the supply of blood to the brain. The research is presented at the APS annual meeting at Experimental Biology 2017 in Chicago.

Starvation Prompts Body Temperature, Blood Sugar Changes to Tolerate Next Food Limitation

Release April 24, 2017 - Rats that have experienced past episodes of limited food resources make physiological adaptations that may extend their lives the next time they are faced with starvation. New research about starvation physiology will be presented today at the Experimental Biology 2017 meeting in Chicago.

EB Highlights - Tuesday, April 25, 2017

APS EB Highlights for Tuesday, April 25, 2017.

Altered Immune Cells May Both Contribute to Preeclampsia and Offer New Hope for Treatment

Released April 23, 2017 - In a new study presented at the APS annual meeting at Experimental Biology 2017, researchers have found that the immune system’s natural killer (NK) cells activate and change in response to placental ischemia. Disrupting these altered cells seems to blunt some of the dangerous complications of the condition, including high blood pressure (hypertension) and inflammation in the mother and growth restriction in the fetus.

EB Highlights - Monday. April 24, 2017

APS EB Highlights for Monday, April 24, 2017.

EB Highlights - Sunday, April 23, 2017

APS EB Highlights for Sunday, April 23, 2017.

EB Highlights - Saturday, April 22, 2017

APS EB Highlights for Saturday, April 22, 2017.

APS 2017 Distinguished Lectureship Award Winners to Present Talks at Experimental Biology

Released April 18, 2017 - APS is pleased to recognize our outstanding Distinguished Lecturer honorees—including Michael J. Welsh, MD; Brant Isakson, PhD; and Kurt Albertine, PhD—who will present their talks at the APS annual meeting at Experimental Biology 2017.

APS Celebrates 50 Years of Diversity in Physiology during Porter Fellowship Anniversary

Released April 19, 2017 - Since 1967, the American Physiological Society’s (APS’s) Porter Physiology Development Fellowship has supported 140 minority doctoral and postdoctoral researchers in the study of the physiological sciences and related careers. In honor of the program’s 50th anniversary, APS shares the stories of 24 past Fellows in a commemorative book and will celebrate current and past Porter Fellows and the legacy of the Fellowship at Experimental Biology in Chicago and throughout 2017.

Nobel Laureate, Esteemed Researchers Participate in APS President’s Symposium

Released April 18, 2017 - APS President Jane Reckelhoff, PhD, of the University of Mississippi Medical Center, has developed an engaging President’s Symposium Series to be presented during the 2017 Experimental Biology meeting in Chicago. Three symposia will focus on the theme “Research Advances in Sex/Gender and Developmental Programming of Chronic Diseases.”

Cortical Nerve Function in Former Amputees Remains Poor Decades after Reconstructive Surgery

Released April 11, 2017 - Researchers have found that the nerve cells (neurons) controlling sensation and movement of the hands show injury-induced changes for years after hand amputation, reattachment or transplant. The small study, the first of its kind to non-invasively explore the health and function of the cortical neurons (neuronal integrity) in these populations at the neurochemical level, is published ahead of print in the Journal of Neurophysiology. The manuscript was chosen as an APSselect article for April.

To Eat or Not to Eat (Before Exercising): That Is the Question

Released March 6, 2017 - Exercise enthusiasts often wonder whether it’s better to eat or fast before a workout. A new study is the first of its kind to show the effects of eating versus fasting on gene expression in adipose (fat) tissue in response to exercise. This difference highlights the different roles fat plays in powering and responding to exercise. The study is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism.

EB 2017 Highlights - APS News Update Special Edition

Organized by date, this special edition of our bi-weekly member e-newsletter features “can’t-miss” highlights from the APS EB 2017 program.

High-Fat Diet during Pregnancy Compromises Offspring’s Lung Health

Released March 29, 2017 - Women who follow a high-fat diet during pregnancy may increase their children’s risk for asthma. A mouse study by Oregon Health and Science University researchers suggests that consistent consumption of fat-laden foods may change the immune response of the offsprings’ respiratory system. The article is published in Physiological Reports.

Statins May Provide Treatment Alternative for Chronic Liver Disease

Released March 23, 2017 - Statin drugs are widely used to manage high cholesterol and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. But in a new review of more than 50 studies, researchers cite reductions in liver inflammation and improvements in other related factors as reasons why statins make good candidates for treating chronic liver disease. The article is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology.

Synched Work Schedules during “Antarctic Summer” May Affect Sleep, Wake Hormones

Released March 9, 2017 - The continuous daylight conditions of summer in Antarctica are known to interfere with physiological functions such as sleep patterns and the release of melatonin, a hormone associated with circadian rhythms and sleep. Now, a study offers new information about why people in this region sleep poorly, and suggests that social behavior may also play a role. The study, published ahead of print in the Journal of Applied Physiology, was chosen as an APSselect article for March.

Caffeine Reduces Oxidative Stress, Improves Oxygen-Induced Lung Injury

Released March 8, 2017 - A new study finds that caffeine may protect the lungs from damage caused by prolonged oxygen therapy, such as oxygen supplementation given to premature babies. The article is the first of its kind to study the positive effects of caffeine on the lungs’ minute tissue structures. It is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology.

“Superhero Physiology: the Case for Captain America”

Released February 28, 2017 - A common challenge to educators across all disciplines is making learning interesting for students. Researchers from Mississippi State University outline a compelling strategy to teach physiology to undergraduate students: using real physiological concepts to explain some of the extreme physical transformations of the fictional superhero Captain America. The article is published in Advances in Physiology Education.

Raising Dietary Potassium to Sodium Ratio Helps Reduce Heart, Kidney Disease

Released February 21, 2017 - Reducing sodium (salt) in the diet has been recommended to lower blood pressure and the risk of heart disease. However, in a new review article, University of Southern California researchers found that increasing dietary potassium is as important to improving the risk factors for cardiovascular and kidney disease as limiting dietary sodium. The article is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism.

Sports-Related Concussion Negatively Affects Heart Rate, Blood Pressure

Released February 9, 2017 - A new study finds that concussion causes short-term impairment of the cardiovascular system but that these cardiovascular symptoms typically resolve within three days of the injury. The article is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology.

Researchers Find Unhealthy Gut Microbes a Cause of Hypertension

Released February 2, 2017 - Researchers have found that the microorganisms residing in the intestines (microbiota) play a role in the development of high blood pressure in rats. The study is published in Physiological Genomics. It was chosen as an APSselect article for February.

Whole-Body Heat Stress Lowers Exercise Capacity, Blood Flow in Men

Released February 1, 2017 - Researchers have found that prolonged exposure to high temperatures can raise both the skin and core temperature, reducing blood flow to the brain and limbs during exercise and limiting the ability to exercise for long periods. The study, the first of its kind to separate the effects of skin- versus internal-raised temperature (hyperthermia), is published in Physiological Reports.

APS Announces Move to Atypon for Journal Hosting

Released January 31, 2017 - APS will move its physiology research journal titles to Atypon’s Literatum platform, the professional and scholarly publishing industry’s technologically advanced and most widely used online publishing platform for hosting published content.

APS and ADI Announce Partnership to Provide Enhanced Scientific Community Support

Released January 31, 2017 - ADI will expand its financial support for a range of early career research awards across a number of fields, including cardiovascular, respiratory, physiological genomics and neural control and autonomic regulation as part of its new partnership with APS.

Food and Antibiotics May Change Microorganisms in Gut, Causing IBS

Released January 26, 2017 - A recent review of research suggests that changes to the microorganisms (microbiota) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract may be a cause of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The review article is published in the American Journal of Physiology—Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology.

Type, Not Just Amount, of Sugar Consumption Matters in Risk of Health Problems

Released January 19, 2017 - The type of sugar you eat—and not just calorie count—may determine your risk for chronic disease. A new study is the first of its kind to compare the effects of two types of sugar on metabolic and vascular function. The paper is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Heart and Circulatory Physiology.

Fit after 100: Training Helps French Bicyclist Beat His Own World Record at 103

Released January 12, 2017 - Adults over 100 years old can still increase their athletic performance and physical fitness with regular training, researchers have found. The case study of Robert Marchand, the now 105-year-old who recently broke the 100+ cycling record—again—is published ahead of print in the Journal of Applied Physiology.

Nerve-Signaling Protein Regulates Gene Associated with Schizophrenia

Released January 5, 2017 - Researchers from the University of California, San Diego, have identified a protein that regulates a gene associated with schizophrenia. The study, published in the Journal of Neurophysiology, was chosen as an APSselect article for January.

High-Mileage Runners Expend Less Energy than Low-Mileage Runners

Released December 22, 2016 - Runners who consistently log high mileage show more neuromuscular changes that improve running efficiency than their low-mileage counterparts, according to researchers from Liverpool John Moores University in the United Kingdom. The paper is published in the Journal of Applied Physiology.

Aspirin Slows Spread of Colon, Pancreatic Cancer in Tumor Cells

Released December 14, 2016 - Researchers from Oregon Health and Science University have found that aspirin may slow the spread of some types of colon and pancreatic cancer cells. The paper is published in the American Journal of Physiology—Cell Physiology.

Inactive Lifestyle Linked to Ozone-Related Lung Disease

Released December 6, 2016 - An inactive lifestyle may increase the risk of environmentally induced asthma symptoms. In a new study published in the American Journal of Physiology—Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency researchers found that sedentary rats exposed to varying degrees of ozone, a type of air pollution, had higher markers for chronic disease when compared to counterparts that were more active.

Cigarette Smoke Exposure Increases Scar Tissue in the Kidney and Heart, Study Finds

Released December 1, 2016 - Smoking may lead to fibrosis in the heart and kidneys and can worsen existing kidney disease, according to a new study published in Physiological Genomics. The research team suggests that exposure to cigarette smoke negatively affects genetic messaging that controls tissue scarring.

APS News Update - Awards Special Edition November 2016

Long-Term Use of Postmenopausal Estrogen Treatment May Impair Kidney Function

Released November 29, 2016 - Long-term estrogen treatment after menopause may increase the risk of new kidney damage and negatively affect women with abnormal kidney function. New research published in the American Journal of Physiology—Renal Physiology finds that markers for kidney damage worsened in a rat model of menopause as the length of estrogen treatment increased.

Smoke + Hot Temperatures = Increased SIDS Risk

Released November 15,2016 - Researchers are a step closer to understanding why cigarette smoke exposure during pregnancy may increase the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). SIDS is the unexplained, sudden death of a child younger than one year of age. A new study published in the American Journal of Physiology – Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology finds that prenatal cigarette smoke exposure in rats affected breathing responses and immune function of their offspring. Breathing and immune function are further negatively affected by high room temperatures.

Study Explores How Immune System Functions During Sleep

Released November 15, 2016 - Research published in the American Journal of Physiology – Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology gives new insight into sleep’s importance to overall health: it may give the immune system a chance to regroup at a time when the relative risk of infection is low. The research team observed that healthy volunteers had greatly reduced numbers of certain T cell subsets within three hours of falling asleep. While it’s unclear where the T cells go during sleep, the researchers have some guesses to where and why they migrate.

Integrative Biology of Exercise 7: Friday Research Highlights

Released November 4, 2016 - Read about today’s highlighted research abstracts.

Testosterone Levels Improve in Overweight, Obese Men after 12-Week Exercise Program

Released November 4, 2016 - Twelve weeks of aerobic exercise significantly boosted testosterone levels in overweight and obese men, according to researchers from Tsukuba University and Ryutsu Keizai University in Japan. Increased levels were highest among men who exercised vigorously. The new findings will be presented at the Integrative Biology of Exercise 7 meeting in Phoenix.

Exercise during Pregnancy May Reduce Markers of Aging in Offspring

Released November 4, 2016 - Exercise during pregnancy may be as effective in protecting the next generation from age-related health risks as efforts made during the offspring’s own adulthood, new research suggests. University of Kentucky researchers will present their findings at the Integrative Biology of Exercise 7 meeting.

Dad’s Preconception Exercise May Increase Obesity, Insulin Resistance Risk in Offspring

Released November 4, 2016 - Fathers who exercise regularly before their children are conceived may program their offspring's genes with an increased risk for metabolic disorders, according to new research from East Carolina University. The surprising results, to be presented at the Integrative Biology of Exercise 7 meeting, point to the identification of epigenetic markers that may change the process of diagnosis and management of chronic disease.

Exercise May Shield Against the Health Fallout of a Weeklong Overindulgence

Released November 3, 2016 - Previous studies show that as little as one week of overeating can impair glycemic control and insulin sensitivity. Just in time for holiday feasting, a new study by University of Michigan researchers finds that exercise can protect fat tissue from changes in inflammation levels and fat metabolism caused by a brief period of eating too many calories. Research will be presented at the Integrative Biology of Exercise meeting in Phoenix.

Hate Exercise? It May Be in Your Genes

Released November 3, 2016 - Genes, specifically those that modulate dopamine in the brain, may play a role in a person’s propensity to embrace or avoid exercise. Rodney Dishman of the University of Georgia will present findings from studies in rats and humans in his talk “Genetics of Exercise Avoidance” at the Integrative Biology of Exercise 7 meeting in Phoenix.

Regular Exercisers Still Face Health Risks From Too Much Sitting

Released November 3, 2016 - People who meet recommended weekly physical activity guidelines are still at risk of developing chronic disease if they spend too much non-exercising time sitting, new research suggests. Peter Katzmarzyk of the Pennington Biomedical Research Center will present findings at the Integrative Biology of Exercise 7 meeting.

Study Finds Weight Loss after Obesity Doesn’t Cut Risk of Certain Types of Cancer

Released November 3, 2016 - Losing weight may not protect against colon and liver cancer, even though obesity is associated with increased risk of certain types of gastrointestinal malignancy. The research, published in the American Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, was chosen as an APSselect article for November.

Integrative Biology of Exercise 7: Thursday Research Highlights

Released November 3, 2016 - Read about today’s highlighted research abstracts.

Community Colleges Play Essential Role in Physiology Education

Released October 19, 2016 - Despite community colleges serving an important role in the STEM education pipeline, physiology students and faculty at these schools are not getting the same professional development and collaboration opportunities as their counterparts at four-year institutions. Two community college faculty members addressed this disparity in Advances in Physiology Education.

Experts Convene to Discuss the Effects, Potential of Exercise throughout the Lifespan

Released October 18, 2016 - Hundreds of researchers on the leading edge of exercise science will meet at the Integrative Biology of Exercise meeting in Phoenix (Nov. 2–4). Symposia topics will cover brain cell stress responses, metabolic diseases, mitochondrial signaling, sedentary behavior, exercise and pregnancy, cardiovascular disease, aging, stem cells and more.

Ability to Process Speech Declines with Age

Released October 4, 2016 - Researchers have found clues to the causes of age-related hearing loss. The ability to track and understand speech in both quiet and noisy environments deteriorates due in part to speech processing declines in both the midbrain and cortex in older adults. The study, published in the Journal of Neurophysiology, was chosen as an APSselect article for October.

Interval Exercise Training Improves Blood Vessel Function in Older Adults

Released September 27, 2016 - Researchers have found that interval exercise training (resistance-based and cardiovascular) improves endothelial function in older adults. Resistance interval training in particular could help reduce the risk of heart disease in adults with type 2 diabetes. The study is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Heart and Circulatory Physiology.

APS News Update Special Edition - Award Deadlines Fall 2016

As part of our mission to foster education, scientific research, and dissemination of information in the physiological sciences, APS hands out more than 100 awards in the field of physiology each year. Deadlines are fast approaching for a number of our awards.

Common Bacteria Show Promise for Treating Celiac Disease

Released September 6, 2016 - Researchers have isolated an enzyme from bacteria present in human saliva that has potential as a therapy for celiac disease (CD), an autoimmune disorder that causes severe digestive and other health problems among sufferers when they consume gluten. The study, published in the American Journal of Physiology—Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, was chosen as an APSselect article for September.

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