Public / Press

Physiology is the study of how the body works under normal conditions. We use physiology when we exercise, read, breathe, sleep, eat, move, or do just about anything.

In this section you will learn "what’s new?" in human and animal physiology. Our information comes directly from the new scientific discoveries published in our research journals and presentations made by our members and other scientists at our meetings.

We explain physiology for the non-scientist through:

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Press Releases and Announcements

Eat Your Vegetables (and Fish): Another Reason Why They May Promote Heart Health

Released November 6, 2018 - Elevated levels of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO)—a compound linked with the consumption of seafood and a primarily vegetarian diet—may reduce hypertension-related heart disease symptoms. New research in rats finds that low-dose treatment with TMAO reduced heart thickening (cardiac fibrosis) and markers of heart failure in an animal model of hypertension. The study is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Heart and Circulatory Physiology and was chosen as an APSselect article for November.

Plant-based ‘Road Salt’ Good for Highways but Not for Insects

Released October 29, 2018 - Beet juice deicer, a natural alternative to road salt that is considered to be an eco-friendlier winter road management solution, may not be ecologically friendly to nearby aquatic species. The findings—the first to explore the physiological effects of beet juice deicer in freshwater animals—were presented at the American Physiological Society’s (APS) Comparative Physiology: Complexity and Integration conference in New Orleans.

As Canadian Oil Exports Increase, Research Explores Effects of Crude Oil on Native Salmon

Released October 28, 2018 - Oil spills spell disaster for affected wildlife, leading to a number of detrimental outcomes, including suffocation, poisoning and longer-term problems related to exposure to crude oil and its components. New research out of the University of Guelph in Canada takes a closer look at the potential effects on regional salmon populations as Canada eyes expansion of its crude oil export capacity. The findings were presented at the APS Comparative Physiology: Complexity and Integration conference in New Orleans.

Bigger = Better: Big Bees Fly Better in Hotter Temps than Smaller Ones Do

Released October 28, 2018 - Arizona State University researchers have found that larger tropical stingless bee species fly better in hot conditions than smaller bees do and that larger size may help certain bee species better tolerate high body temperatures. The findings run contrary to the well-established temperature-size “rule,” which suggests that ectotherms—insects that rely on the external environment to control their temperature—are larger in cold climates and smaller in hot ones. The research will be presented today at the American Physiological Society’s (APS) Comparative Physiology: Complexity and Integration conference in New Orleans.

How Hibernators Could Help Humans Treat Illness, Conserve Energy and Get to Mars

Released October 27, 2018 - Researchers will gather today to discuss the potential for hibernation and the related process, torpor, to aid human health in spaceflight at the American Physiological Society’s (APS) Comparative Physiology: Complexity and Integration conference in New Orleans.

Climate Change a Threat to Even the Most Tolerant Oysters

Released October 27, 2018 - Climate change-associated severe weather events may cause flooding that threatens the survival of the Olympia oyster, new research suggests. The findings will be presented today at the American Physiological Society’s (APS) Comparative Physiology: Complexity and Integration conference in New Orleans.

A Tale of Two Fishes: Researchers Observe How Rainbow Trout Populations Respond to Higher Temps

Released October 26, 2018 - Natural variation may help decide which rainbow trout strains are likely to survive worldwide global warming, according to a new study. The findings will be presented today at the American Physiological Society’s (APS) Comparative Physiology: Complexity and Integration conference in New Orleans.

A Polar Bear, a Shark and an Oyster Walk into a Meeting…

Released October 22, 2018 - Leading experts studying animals for insights into human and animal biology will convene this week in New Orleans at the American Physiological Society’s (APS) Comparative Physiology: Complexity and Integration conference. Researchers at this intersociety meeting will discuss how polar bears, sharks, oysters and other animals are adapting and evolving in the face of changing climates, habitats, food availability, environmental toxins and more.

Motion Sickness vs. Cybersickness: Two Different Problems or the Same Condition?

Released October 23, 2018 - Contrary to previous research, severe motion sickness and cybersickness—a type of motion sickness that stems from exposure to virtual reality—may be considered the same clinical condition, according to researchers. The findings, the first to study both conditions in the same group of people, are published ahead of print in the Journal of Applied Physiology.

E-Cigarette Flavorings, Additives Increase Inflammation and Impair Lung Function

Released October 11, 2018 - Flavoring and additive ingredients in e-cigarettes may increase inflammation and impair lung function, according to new research. The study, published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, also found that short-term exposure to e-cigarettes was enough to cause lung inflammation similar or worse than that seen in traditional cigarette use. The research was chosen as an APSselect article for October.

Chemotherapy May Lead to Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Skeletal Muscle

Released October 4, 2018 - Chemotherapy drugs to treat breast cancer may promote muscle mitochondrial dysfunction, according to new research. Dysfunctional mitochondria, the energy centers of the cells, may contribute to fatigue and weakness that people with breast cancer may experience through the course of disease treatment. The study is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Cell Physiology.

Special Awards Edition APS News Update - September 28, 2018

APS' Special Awards Edition of the News Update.

Hormone Therapy for ‘Low T’ May Not Be Safe for All Men

Released October 3, 2018 - Boosting testosterone levels with hormone supplements may not be safe or appropriate for all men with low testosterone (low T), according to new research. Recent findings will be presented today at the American Physiological Society’s (APS) Cardiovascular, Renal and Metabolic Diseases: Sex-Specific Implications for Physiology conference in Knoxville, Tenn.

Study Finds More Belly Fat, Less Muscle After Crash Dieting

Released October 2, 2018 - Extreme dieting causes short-term body changes that may have long-term health consequences, according to a new study. The findings will be presented today at the American Physiological Society’s (APS) Cardiovascular, Renal and Metabolic Diseases: Sex-Specific Implications for Physiology conference in Knoxville, Tenn.

High-fat, High-sugar Diet May Impair Future Fertility in Females

Released October 2, 2018 - The differences in the way males and females respond to a high-fat, high-sugar diet may include impairment of female fertility, new research suggests. The findings will be presented today at the American Physiological Society’s (APS) Cardiovascular, Renal and Metabolic Diseases: Sex-Specific Implications for Physiology conference in Knoxville, Tenn.

Delayed Pregnancy = Heart Health Risks for Moms and Sons, Study Shows

Released October 1, 2018 - Delaying pregnancy may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease in both women and their children, with boys at higher risk of disease, according to a new study. Researchers from the University of Alberta in Canada will present their findings today at the American Physiological Society’s (APS) Cardiovascular, Renal and Metabolic Diseases: Sex-Specific Implications for Physiology conference in Knoxville, Tenn.

Exercise Helps Bones, but Not Metabolism, in Ovarian Function Loss

Released October 1, 2018 - Exercise may reduce the risk of osteoporosis associated with the loss of ovarian function, but fitness may not protect against related metabolic changes and weight gain, a new study reports. The findings will be presented today at the American Physiological Society’s (APS) Cardiovascular, Renal and Metabolic Diseases: Sex-Specific Implications for Physiology conference in Knoxville, Tenn.

Drug Cocktail May Treat Postmenopausal PCOS Complications

Released October 1, 2018 - A combination of a diabetes drug and a high blood pressure medication may effectively treat all symptoms of postmenopausal polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The findings will be presented today at the American Physiological Society’s (APS) Cardiovascular, Renal and Metabolic Diseases: Sex-Specific Implications for Physiology conference in Knoxville, Tenn.

Anxious and Forgetful after Menopause? Low Estrogen May Be to Blame

Released October 1, 2018 - Lack of estrogen may play a role in the development of anxiety and memory problems, according to a new rodent study. The findings will be presented today at the American Physiological Society’s (APS) Cardiovascular, Renal and Metabolic Diseases: Sex-Specific Implications for Physiology conference in Knoxville, Tenn.

Researchers Explore How Being Male or Female Affects Our Hearts, Kidneys and Waistlines

Released September 26, 2018 - A person’s sex can be a defining factor in how well—or how poorly—they respond to disease, therapy and recovery. Experts at the forefront of sex-specific research will convene next week at the sixth APS conference on sex differences in cardiovascular and renal physiology. The Cardiovascular, Renal and Metabolic Diseases: Sex-Specific Implications for Physiology conference will be held September 30–October 3 in Knoxville, Tenn.

Crunched for Time? High-intensity Exercise = Same Cell Benefits in Fewer Minutes

Released September 20, 2018 - A few minutes of high-intensity interval or sprinting exercise may be as effective as much longer exercise sessions in spurring beneficial improvements in mitochondrial function, according to new research. The small study is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology.

Obesity Alters Airway Muscle Function, Increases Asthma Risk

Released September 13, 2018 - New research suggests that obesity changes how airway muscles function, increasing the risk of developing asthma. The study is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology.

Losing Just Six Hours of Sleep Could Increase Diabetes Risk, Study Finds

Released September 5, 2018 - Losing a single night’s sleep may affect the liver’s ability to produce glucose and process insulin, increasing the risk of metabolic diseases such as hepatic steatosis (fatty liver) and type 2 diabetes. The findings of the mouse study are published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism. The research was chosen as an APSselect article for September.

Gum Disease Treatment May Improve Symptoms in Cirrhosis Patients

Released August 29, 2018 - Routine oral care to treat gum disease (periodontitis) may play a role in reducing inflammation and toxins in the blood (endotoxemia) and improving cognitive function in people with liver cirrhosis. The study is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology.

Caution Needed When Prescribing Antibiotics to Hypertension Patients, Study Finds

Released August 23, 2018 - Individual variations in genetic makeup and gut bacteria may explain the different effects of antibiotics on blood pressure, a new rat study suggests. The findings are published ahead of print in Physiological Genomics.

More Protein after Weight Loss May Reduce Fatty Liver Disease

Released August 16, 2018 - Increasing the amount of protein in the diet may reduce the liver’s fat content and lower the risk of diabetes in people with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The study is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism.

Estrogen May Protect Against Depression after Heart Attack

Released August 9, 2018 - Estrogen may protect against heart failure-related depression by preventing the production of inflammation-causing chemicals in the brain. The study is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Heart and Circulatory Physiology.

Blocking Digestive Hormone May Prevent Diet-Induced Pancreatic Cancer

Released August 2, 2018 - A high-fat diet may promote the growth of pancreatic cancer independent of obesity because of the interaction between dietary fat and cholecystokinin (CCK), a digestive hormone. In addition, blocking CCK may help prevent the spread of pancreatic tumors to other areas of the body (metastases). The new findings are published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. The research was chosen as an APSselect article for August.

Heat Therapy Boosts Mitochondrial Function in Muscles

Released July 31, 2018 - A new study finds that long-term heat therapy may increase mitochondrial function in the muscles. The discovery could lead to new treatments for people with chronic illness or disease. The study—the first of its kind in humans—is published ahead of print in the Journal of Applied Physiology.

Diabetes during Pregnancy May Increase Baby’s Heart Disease Risk

Released July 19, 2018 - Gestational diabetes may increase the risk of blood vessel dysfunction and heart disease in offspring by altering a smooth muscle protein responsible for blood vessel network formation. Understanding of the protein’s function in fetal cells may improve early detection of disease in children. The study is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Cell Physiology.

Smell Receptors in the Body Could Help Sniff Out Disease

Released July 12, 2018 - A review of more than 200 studies reveals that olfactory receptors—proteins that bind to odors that aid the sense of smell—perform a wide range of mostly unknown functions outside the nose. The function of extra-nasal olfactory receptors has the potential to be used in the diagnosis and treatment of health conditions such as cancer. The article is published in the July issue of Physiological Reviews.

Stem Cell Transplant Drug May Protect against Smoke-related COPD Symptoms

Released July 3, 2018 - New research suggests that a drug shown to mobilize stem cells in patients with certain cancers that need stem cell transplantation may also protect against cigarette smoke-induced lung injury. The study, published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, was chosen as an APSselect article for July.

Obesity + Aging Linked to Alzheimer’s Markers in the Brain

Released June 28, 2018 - A new study suggests that when a high-fat, high-sugar diet that leads to obesity is paired with normal aging, it may contribute to the development of Alzheimer’s disease. In addition, researchers discovered that certain areas of the brain respond differently to risk factors associated with Alzheimer’s. The study is published in Physiological Reports.

Martin Frank, PhD, Retires as APS Executive Director

Released June 25, 2018 - Martin Frank, PhD, FAPS, will retire on June 30, 2018, from the American Physiological Society (APS) after 33 years as executive director. During his time at APS, Frank has overseen growth in many areas, including increases in the Society’s member base and in its ability to support researchers working in the discipline of physiology.

Online Professional Development Boosts Teachers’ Confidence, Knowledge

Released June 21, 2018 - Multiple factors go into making an effective professional development (PD) program for K–12 teachers. Focusing on content, active learning, collaboration and coaching support and using models of effective teaching can broaden the knowledge of science teachers. However, many teachers are short on the resources needed to attend one-time short-term PD programs. Additionally, there is little data on the effect of national PD programs on student achievement. The results of one online PD program for teachers will be shared today as part of American Physiological Society’s (APS’s) Institute on Teaching and Learning in Madison, Wis.

‘Exam Roulette’ Could Quell Essay-induced Anxiety

Released June 21, 2018 - For many students, essay tests are a source of dread and anxiety. But for professors, these tests provide an excellent way to assess a student’s depth of knowledge and critical-thinking skills. At the American Physiological Society’s (APS’s) Institute on Teaching and Learning in Madison, Wis., Andrew Petzold, PhD, of the University of Minnesota Rochester Center for Learning Innovation, will discuss how a game of chance can lead to increased student preparation and motivation.

Study Abroad for Commuters at the University of New Hampshire at Manchester

Released June 21, 2018 - Studying abroad can impart a number of valuable, lifelong skills in students, including improved foreign language skills, appreciation for other cultures and, importantly, access to unique learning opportunities only available in certain countries and settings. However, less than 10 percent of U.S. college students participate in study abroad experiences. The cost of these experiences remains a major impediment to many students. As part of the American Physiological Society’s (APS’s) Institute on Teaching and Learning in Madison, Wis., Patricia A. Halpin, PhD, will present a case study of a pilot program that aimed to provide more opportunities for students at the University of New Hampshire at Manchester to study abroad.

In-Person and Online Learning May Boost Student Performance, Reduce Anxiety

Released June 20, 2018 - Before online learning existed, the traditional lecture format was the only option for college courses. Students who skipped class risked missing out on valuable information presented in-person. Researchers from the University of Iowa found that online content presentation accompanied by weekly interactive class meetings—a “blended” course format—may improve academic achievement in students at risk for failing. In addition, fewer students withdrew from the class when the content was presented in a blended format. The findings will be presented today at the American Physiological Society’s (APS’s) Institute on Teaching and Learning in Madison, Wis.

Forgetting May Help Improve Memory and Learning

Released June 20, 2018 - Forgetting names, skills or information learned in class is often thought of as purely negative. However unintuitive it may seem, research suggests that forgetting plays a positive role in learning: It can actually increase long-term retention, information retrieval and performance. The findings will be presented today at the American Physiological Society’s (APS’s) Institute on Teaching and Learning in Madison, Wis.

Course Flexibility Frees Up Time, Preserves Performance

Released June 19, 2018 - Medical students face an intense schedule and workload and often struggle to juggle their priorities. Similarly, medical school faculty must find time in their busy schedules to prepare lectures and for face-to-face interaction with their students. In an effort to optimize student and faculty time and increase engagement between them, researchers from Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center “flipped” their content delivery strategy upside down. They will present their findings today at the American Physiological Society (APS) Institute on Teaching and Learning in Madison, Wis.

Does Good Attendance = Good Grades?

Released June 19, 2018 - Studies of classroom attendance patterns in undergraduate students have shown that attendance and performance go hand in hand—attending class is the key to reaping the rewards of academic achievement. However, many of these studies were completed before the advent of the internet and the explosion of online learning. Researchers will discuss the changing nature of medical student engagement in the physical classroom and effective teaching approaches today at the American Physiological Society (APS) Institute on Teaching and Learning in Madison, Wis.

Trends in Science Education Take Center Stage at APS ITL

Released June 18, 2018 - The APS Institute on Teaching and Learning (ITL) kicks off today and includes a robust line-up of experts presenting research on what’s next and new in science education.

APS a Finalist in Two Categories for Association Media & Publishing’s EXCEL Awards

Released June 7, 2018 - APS’s I Spy Physiology blog and the APS Benefits Me campaign were announced as finalists for Association Media & Publishing’s (AM&P) Annual EXCEL Awards, which recognize the best and brightest in association media and publishing. Winners will be announced on June 25.

Increased Electrical Activity in Eye May Relieve Short-term Dry Eye Pain

Released June 6, 2018 - A boost of electrical activity in the eye’s mucous membranes may lead to new treatments for the painful condition known as dry eye. The study, published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Cell Physiology, was chosen as an APSselect article for June.

APS Awards $293,250 to Its 2018 Undergraduate Research Fellows

Released May 30, 2018 - APS is pleased to announce its 2018 Undergraduate Summer Research Fellows. Recipients of the Society’s four summer fellowship programs spend an average of 10 weeks in the laboratory of an established scientist and APS member.

Heavier Astronauts Have Higher Risk of Post-flight Eye Changes

Released May 31, 2018 - New research suggests that changes in the eye that occur during spaceflight may be related to how much an astronaut weighs. The study is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology.

Jeff Sands, MD, Becomes 91st President of the American Physiological Society

Released May 17, 2018 - Jeff Sands, MD, assumed the APS presidency immediately following the APS annual meeting at Experimental Biology 2018. Sands is the Juha P. Kokko Professor of Medicine and Physiology and the director of the renal division at Emory University in Atlanta.

APS Announces New Leadership for Coming Year

Released May 17, 2018 - The American Physiological Society (APS) is pleased to announce its new leadership: President Elect Meredith Hay, PhD, FAPS, and Councilors David Mattson, PhD; Timothy Musch, PhD, FAPS; and Larissa Shimoda, PhD. The new officers were elected by APS membership and took office last month at the APS annual meeting at Experimental Biology (EB) in San Diego.

Omega-3, Omega-6 in Diet Alters Gene Expression in Obesity

Released May 15, 2018 - A new study reveals that essential fats in the diet may play a role in regulating protein secretion in the muscles by changing the way genes associated with secretion act. The study is published ahead of print in Physiological Genomics.

Increased Nerve Activity May Raise Blood Pressure in Anxiety

Released May 3, 2018 - Sympathetic nerve activity to skeletal muscle blood vessels—a function of the nervous system that helps regulate blood pressure—increases during physiological and mental stress in people with chronic anxiety, a new study finds. Over time, this response may increase the risk of high blood pressure and heart disease, although the study did not test this specifically. The study, published ahead of print in the Journal of Neurophysiology, was chosen as an APSselect article for May.

Stress Hormones Spike as the Temperature Rises

Released April 25, 2018 - A new study in medical students finds that summer, not winter, is the season when people are most likely to have higher levels of circulating stress hormones. These non-intuitive findings contradict traditional concepts of the taxing physical toll of winter and the relaxed ease of summer. Researchers will present their findings today at the American Physiological Society (APS) annual meeting at Experimental Biology 2018 in San Diego.

Drinking Kefir May Prompt Brain-Gut Communication to Lower Blood Pressure

Released April 25, 2018 - Drinking kefir may have a positive effect on blood pressure by promoting communication between the gut and brain. Kefir is a fermented probiotic milk beverage known to help maintain the balance of beneficial bacteria in the digestive system. Researchers will present their findings today at the American Physiological Society (APS) annual meeting at Experimental Biology 2018 in San Diego.

Preconception Zinc Deficiency Could Spell Bad News for Fertility

Released April 24, 2018 - An estimated 10 percent of couples in the U.S. struggle with infertility. While a variety of factors can make it difficult for some people to get pregnant, ovulation disorders are a leading cause of female infertility. Now, researchers have found that zinc deficiency can negatively affect the early stages of egg development, reducing the ability of the egg cells to divide and be fertilized. This may affect fertility months in the future. The researchers will present their results at the American Physiological Society annual meeting at Experimental Biology 2018 in San Diego.

Mental, Not Physical, Fatigue Affects Seniors’ Walking Ability

Released April 24, 2018 - Low “mental energy” may affect walking patterns in older adults more than physical fatigue. New research about the relationship between walking ability and self-reported mood will be presented today at the American Physiological Society (APS) annual meeting at Experimental Biology 2018 in San Diego.

Slower Calorie Burn during Pregnancy May Mean More Retained Baby Weight in Obese Black Moms

Released April 22, 2018 - Differences in the way women with obesity burn calories during pregnancy may be a contributor to long-term postpartum weight retention in black moms. A new study shows that despite similar levels of food intake and activity levels—and a higher proportion of fat-free mass—obese black women burned fewer calories than their white counterparts. The findings, which suggest a need for more individualized pregnancy weight gain recommendations for obese women, will be presented today at the APS annual meeting at Experimental Biology 2018 in San Diego.

Drinking Water May Help Exercising Seniors Stay Mentally Sharp

Released April 22, 2018 - Older people should drink more water to reap the full cognitive benefits of exercise, new research suggests. The study, to be presented today at the American Physiological Society (APS) annual meeting at Experimental Biology 2018 in San Diego, explores the association between hydration status before exercising and exercise-enhanced cognition in older adults.

Scott Steen Named New Executive Director of the American Physiological Society

Released April 20, 2018 - The American Physiological Society today announced that Scott Steen, CAE, FASAE, will serve as its new executive director, starting on July 16. A veteran association management professional, Steen was selected following an executive search to replace APS’ long-serving executive director, Martin Frank, PhD.

2018 Distinguished Lectureship Award Winners to Present Talks at EB

Released April 17, 2018 - The American Physiological Society (APS) has announced the 2018 recipients of its distinguished lecturer awards. APS is pleased to recognize these outstanding honorees, who will present their lectures at the APS annual meeting at Experimental Biology 2018 (April 21–25 in San Diego).

Nobel Laureate, Top Researchers Talk Exosomes in President’s Symposium Series

Released April 17, 2018 - APS President Dennis Brown, PhD, of Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, has organized a thought-provoking President’s Symposium Series for the American Physiological Society (APS) annual meeting at Experimental Biology 2018 in San Diego. Three symposia will focus on the theme “Exosomes: The New Frontier.” Top researchers in physiology will discuss the biology and pathophysiology of exosomes—tiny structures secreted from cells and found in many body fluids—as well as the use of exosomes as diagnostic and therapeutic tools. The series concludes on Wednesday with the prestigious Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Lecture by Nobel Laureate Leland Hartwell, PhD, director of the Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University.

Distracted by Social Media, But Students Are Still Listening

Released April 12, 2018 - A new study finds that social media distraction in the classroom interferes with visual, but not auditory, learning in college students. The paper is published in Advances in Physiology Education.

Resistance Exercise Improves Insulin Resistance, Glucose Levels

Released April 3, 2018 - A new study suggests that resistance exercise may improve indicators of type 2 diabetes by increasing expression of a protein that regulates blood sugar (glucose) absorption in the body. The paper, published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism, was chosen as an APSselect article for April.

Opioids No More? Review Article Evaluates Alternative Treatments for Chronic Pain

Released March 29, 2018 - An estimated 2 million people in the U.S. are addicted to prescription opioids—powerful doctor-prescribed medications for chronic or severe pain. The drugs are commonly prescribed to treat gastrointestinal pain caused by conditions such as Crohn’s disease and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), raising the risk of addiction among this population. A review published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology explores newer, potentially safer therapies for treating chronic abdominal pain with lower risks of addiction and side effects.

Hair Loss Drug Might Improve Vascular Health, Mental Decline

Released March 20, 2018 - Minoxidil, a popular drug used on the scalp to treat hair loss, might improve blood flow to the brain, lower blood pressure and increase elasticity in the blood vessels if taken in an oral form, according to a new study in mice. The article is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Heart and Circulatory Physiology.

EB 2018 Special Edition News Update - March 15, 2018

Organized by date, this special edition of our bi-weekly member e-newsletter features “can’t-miss” highlights from the APS EB 2018 program.

Aging + Lung Stiffening = Function Decline

Released March 8, 2018 - New research suggests that certain areas of the lungs are more likely than others to show age-related damage that compromises respiratory function. The paper is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology.

Tapeworms Could Prevent, Treat Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Children

Released March 1, 2018 - New research suggests that parasitic worms could someday help prevent or treat pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The study, published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, was chosen as an APSselect article for March.

Muscle Regeneration Compromises Stability in Muscular Dystrophy

Released February 28, 2018 - A new study finds that muscle fibers in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) split during regeneration to such an extreme that the muscle is weakened beyond repair. The article is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Cell Physiology.

Diabetic Nerve Damage May Increase Energy Needed for Walking

Released February 21, 2018 - A new study suggests that diabetes-related nerve damage (peripheral neuropathy) may reduce the amount of energy stored by the Achilles tendon during walking. The tendon connects the back of the heel to the calf muscles. This reduction increases the energy required for locomotion (“cost of walking”). The article is published ahead of print in the Journal of Applied Physiology.

Simulated Virtual Patients Improve Students’ Learning Experience

Released February 14, 2018 - Medical students in India are using computer-simulated virtual patients (SVPs) as a learning tool for clinical skills and are becoming more enthusiastic about their studies. SVPs allow students to interact with and perform procedures on pretend patients that are programmed to exhibit symptoms of illness or injury. The article is published in Advances in Physiology Education.

Arm Exercise Improves Walking Ability after Stroke

Released February 6, 2018 - A new study shows that arm exercises may improve walking ability months and even years after having a stroke. The study, the first to test the influence of arm training on post-stroke leg function, is published ahead of print in the Journal of Neurophysiology. It was chosen as an APSselect article for February.

Hunger Overrides Sense of Fullness After Weight Loss

Released February 1, 2018 - The levels of hormones that control hunger and fullness(satiety) both rise after weight loss, but individuals may only experience an increase in hunger, according to a new study. The study is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism.

Individuals with HIV at Higher Risk for Heart Disease

Released January 24, 2018 - A review of more than 80 studies reveals that changes in the immune cells of people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection may increase their risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The review is published in the journal Physiology.

Overweight Female Kidney Donors May Be at Risk for Preeclampsia

Female kidney donors who are overweight may be at a higher risk for preeclampsia during pregnancy, according to a new study. The increased risk is due to a reduction in a type of kidney function called renal functional reserve (RFR). The article is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Renal Physiology.

Arsenic-Tainted Drinking Water May Increase Diabetes Risk

Released January 10, 2018 - A new study reports that chronic exposure to arsenic interferes with insulin secretion in the pancreas, which may increase the risk of diabetes. The paper, published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, was chosen as an APSselect article for January.

Taking Folic Acid in Late Pregnancy May Increase Childhood Allergy Risk

Released December 21, 2017 - A new study suggests that taking folic acid in late pregnancy may increase the risk of allergies in offspring affected by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). The article is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology.

The Hearst Foundations Award $50K to APS Undergraduate Research Program

Released December 19, 2017 - The American Physiological Society (APS) is honored to announce a new $50,000 grant from The Hearst Foundations in support of the APS undergraduate summer research fellowships (UGSRF) program that will be used to fund immersive laboratory research experiences for five students. As part of an ongoing commitment to foster undergraduate research experiences in physiology, APS has sponsored 348 UGSRFs since 2000. Fellows will spend 10 weeks working in the labs of APS member-researcher hosts and complete online interactive professional development lessons.

Muscle Paralysis May Increase Bone Loss

Released December 14, 2017 - Muscle paralysis rapidly causes inflammation in nearby bone marrow, which may promote the formation of large cells that break down bone, a new study finds. The article is published in the American Journal of Physiology—Cell Physiology.

APS Launches New and Improved User Experience for Its Online Physiology Journals

Released December 12, 2017 - To provide journal readers and authors with an upgraded user experience, the American Physiological Society (APS) is pleased to announce the transfer of its journals to a new online platform. The move transfers 13 APS physiology research journals to Atypon’s Literatum online publishing platform after more than 20 years with its previous and original online journal host.

Early-life Trauma May Increase Heart Disease Risk in Adults

Released December 7, 2017 - Stress in early life may change the immune response in the kidneys, increasing the risk of heart disease later in life, according to a new study. The paper, published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Renal Physiology, was chosen as an APSselect article for December.

Exercise May Help Protect Smokers from Inflammation, Muscle Damage

Released November 28, 2017 - Regular exercise may protect smokers from some of the negative effects associated with smoking, such as muscle loss and inflammation, according to a new study. The article is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology.

High-Fat Diet May Change Breast Milk Makeup, Affect Baby’s Health

Released November 21, 2017 - New research suggests that following a high-fat diet during lactation—regardless of diet during pregnancy—alters RNA activity in breast milk. The changes in genetic material may increase the risk of metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes in offspring. The article is published ahead of print in Physiological Genomics.

Getting Enough Sleep May Help Skin Wounds Heal Faster

Released November 14, 2017 - Getting more sleep may help wound healing, and a nutrition supplement may also help, according to a new study. The paper, published ahead of print in the Journal of Applied Physiology, was chosen as an APSselect article for November.

Red Blood Cell Function, Renewal the Focus of Sickle Cell Conference Symposium

Released November 8, 2017 - Researchers will meet to discuss the physiology, function and future of red blood cells (RBCs) in sickle cell disease (SCD) at the “Red Cell Physiology” symposium during the APS Physiological and Pathophysiological Consequences of Sickle Cell Disease conference in Washington, D.C.

Out of Balance: Gut Bacterial Makeup May Exacerbate Pain in Sickle Cell Disease

Released November 7, 2017 - An overabundance of the bacteria Veillonella in the digestive tract may increase pain in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). Researchers from Howard University will present their findings at the APS Physiological and Pathophysiological Consequences of Sickle Cell Disease conference in Washington, D.C.

Genotype May Identify Complication Likelihood in Sickle Cell Patients

Released November 7, 2017 - Researchers have found a genotype that could help identify sickle cell disease (SCD) patients at greatest risk of common, yet severe, complications of SCD. The findings will be presented at the APS Physiological and Pathophysiological Consequences of Sickle Cell Disease conference in Washington, D.C.

Stress, Fear of Pain May Be Cause of Painful Sickle Cell Episodes

Released November 6, 2017 - Mental stress and the anticipation of pain may cause blood vessels to narrow and trigger episodes of severe pain (vaso-occlusive crisis, or VOC) in sickle cell disease (SCD). A team of researchers from California will present their findings at the APS Physiological and Pathophysiological Consequences of Sickle Cell Disease conference in Washington, D.C.

Sickle Cell Patients Experience Improved Quality of Life with Alzheimer’s Drug

Released November 6, 2017 - A popular drug commonly used to treat Alzheimer’s disease has shown promise in laboratory and clinical trials for treating patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). Researchers have found that the molecule memantine stabilizes the development, longevity and function of red blood cells and is well-tolerated by SCD patients. The findings will be presented at the APS Physiological and Pathophysiological Consequences of Sickle Cell Disease conference in Washington, D.C.

APS Joins with Other Prestigious Scholarly Publishers to Launch the Scientific Society Publisher Alliance (SSPA)

Released November 6, 2017 - APS, along with 10 other prestigious not-for-profit scientific membership societies, today announced the launch of the Scientific Society Publisher Alliance (SSPA) (byscientistsforscience.org), an initiative focused on building awareness of and support for publication of scientific research by scientist-run scientific societies. The SSPA seeks to emphasize the value of publishing vital scientific research in scholarly journals managed by working scientists, and edited and peer reviewed in a fair and supportive manner by working scientists.

Sickle Cell Conference to Discuss Causes and Pathways to a Cure

Released October 31, 2017 - Leading experts in the field of sickle cell disease (SCD) research will convene in Washington, D.C., for the Physiological and Pathophysiological Consequences of Sickle Cell Disease conference (November 6–8). The conference will explore SCD—the world’s most prevalent single gene mutation disease—and new research on preventing and reversing its deadly consequences.

Hypertension in Women: Review Calls for More Data to Improve Treatment

Released October 26, 2017 - Women account for half of all cases of high blood pressure (hypertension) in the U.S., yet the majority of hypertension research focuses on men. A review of more than 80 studies highlights sex differences in hypertension-related kidney (renal) disease and explores possible reasons why women respond differently than men. The article, published in the American Journal of Physiology—Renal Physiology, emphasizes the need for more hypertension research in females.

Exercise Nerve Response in Type 1 Diabetes Worsens over Time

Released October 18, 2017 - A new study finds that late-stage type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) weakens the autonomic reflex that regulates blood pressure during exercise, impairing circulation, nerve function and exercise tolerance. The study is published in the American Journal of Physiology—Heart and Circulatory Physiology.

Children with ADHD Likely to Have Touch-Processing Abnormalities

Released October 10, 2017 - Children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) are likely to also have trouble with touch (tactile) processing. A new study finds that children with ADHD fare worse on several tests of tactile functioning, including reaction time and detecting a weak stimulus on the skin (detection threshold). The article, published ahead of print in the Journal of Neurophysiology, was chosen as an APSselect article for October.

Scientists Find New RNA Class in Kidneys Is Linked to Hypertension

Released October 5, 2017 - Researchers from the University of Toledo (Ohio) College of Medicine and Life Sciences have discovered more than 12,000 different types of noncoding RNA (circRNAs) in the kidney tissue of rats. This type of genetic material, previously thought to have no function, may play a significant role in regulating blood pressure in heart and kidney disease. The article, published in Physiological Genomics, was chosen as an APSselect article for October.

Review Study Explores Causes of Physical Inactivity

Released October 4, 2017 - A new review of more than 500 studies examines the environmental and physiological causes of physical inactivity and the role it plays in the development of chronic disease. The article is published in Physiological Reviews.

Get Fewer Antioxidants? Lower Levels May Lessen Damage from Colitis

Released September 28, 2017 - A new study finds that lowering the levels of an antioxidant in the colon has an unexpectedly positive effect on gastrointestinal (GI) inflammation. The paper is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology.

APS Establishes Hurricane Relief Fund Following Devastating Hurricane Season

Released September 27, 2017 - The American Physiological Society (APS) has allocated $100,000 for a Hurricane Relief Fund to assist young APS member-researchers in their rebuilding efforts following Hurricanes Harvey, Irma and Maria. Applications are now being accepted for grants of up to $2,000 which are intended to help graduate students and postdoctoral fellows impacted by the storms to replace belongings, pay for relocation costs and get back on their feet.

Preemies’ Separation from Mom + Stress May Increase Health Risks in Adulthood

Released September 20, 2017 - A new study suggests that physiological stress in premature infants combined with separation from their mothers may have lasting effects into adulthood. In clinical studies, these factors have been found to increase the risk of obesity and insulin resistance, leading to metabolic disorders such as metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The study is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology.

Special Awards Edition APS News Update - September 15, 2017

APS' Special Awards Edition of the News Update.

Electrical Stimulation Improves Paralyzed Patients’ Function

Released September 14, 2017 - Nearly 282,000 people in the U.S. live with paralysis following a spinal cord injury (SCI). A review of more than 90 studies found that electrical stimulation may help restore function in those paralyzed after SCI. The article is published in Physiology.

New Generation Drugs May Hold Key to Alternative Erectile Dysfunction Treatment

Released September 6, 2017 - Close to 70 percent of men with erectile dysfunction (ED) respond to the ED drug sildenafil. However, only about 50 percent of men with diabetes—a population commonly affected by ED—achieve positive results with sildenafil. Researchers from the Smooth Muscle Research Centre at the Dundalk Institute of Technology, in Dundalk, Ireland, are studying two new drugs that may give men with diabetes—and others for whom conventional treatment is ineffective—new hope for treating ED. The article is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Cell Physiology.

Young and Female: A Good Combination for Kidney Health?

Released September 5, 2017 - Young females may have the greatest level of protection against acute kidney injury (AKI) caused by the chemotherapy drug Cisplatin, commonly used to treat lung, ovarian, bladder and stomach cancer. Nearly a third of all people who are treated with Cisplatin develop AKI. The study—the first to investigate combined sex and age differences in the response to kidney injury—is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Renal Physiology and was chosen as an APSselect article for September.

Heat Could Aid the Treatment of Cancer, Organ Transplant and Autoimmune Diseases

Released August 29, 2017 - Heat therapy may be a promising treatment in the fight against cancer, autoimmune problems and efforts to avoid organ rejection in transplant patients, according to researchers at the University of Kentucky. The research team exposed colorectal cancer cells and T-cells to temperatures lower and higher than normal body temperatures to observe the effects of temperature change on cellular energy production. They found that heat exposure can slow cancer cell growth and activate T-cells to fight infection. They will present their findings at the Physiological Bioenergetics: Mitochondria from Bench to Bedside conference in San Diego.

Turtles May Hold the Key to Protecting Human Hearts after Heart Attack

Released August 28, 2017 - In humans, going just minutes without oxygen—such as during a heart attack or stroke—can cause devastating damage to the heart. Conversely, freshwater turtles hibernate for months at the bottom of frozen lakes and awake with no heart damage in the spring. Researchers at Aarhus University in Denmark and the University of Cambridge in the U.K. are looking to these turtles to understand the mechanisms that protect them from heart damage. “We investigated whether turtles may avoid oxidative damage in the heart after winter hibernation by specifically inhibiting the mitochondrial protein complex I, which is responsible for the production of ROS,” Amanda Bundgård, lead author of the study, explained. The research team will present their findings at the Physiological Bioenergetics: Mitochondria from Bench to Bedside conference in San Diego.

Calorie Reduction + Exercise = Better Muscle Function in Older Adults

Released August 28, 2017 - Improved muscle performance starts with better mitochondrial function. Older adults who are overweight may improve their muscle function with a weight loss program that combines exercise and calorie reduction, according to researchers from Florida Hospital, who present their findings today at the Physiological Bioenergetics: Mitochondria from Bench to Bedside conference in San Diego.

Taking It to the Clinic: Using Mitochondria to Diagnose Disease

Released August 28, 2017 - Leading researchers will discuss advances in understanding the role of mitochondria in health and disease and the use of the “powerhouse of the cell” as a clinical diagnostic tool during the “Translating the Mitochondria—Taking It to the Clinic” symposium at the American Physiological Society’s (APS’s) Physiological Bioenergetics: Mitochondria from Bench to Bedside conference.

Mom’s, Not Dad’s, Mitochondria Create Healthy Embryos

Released August 28, 2017 - Mammal embryos shed paternal mitochondria within days of fertilization, perhaps to ensure the offspring a healthy life, a new study shows. Researchers from the California Institute of Technology will present their findings today at the Physiological Bioenergetics: Mitochondria from Bench to Bedside conference in San Diego.

Playing the Publishing ‘Game’: Making the Most of Reviewers’ Comments

Released August 24, 2017 - Reviewer comments on a scientific manuscript may seem critical and personal to authors, but they are generally well thought out and meant to enhance the understandability and integrity of the paper. Douglas Curran-Everett, PhD, editor-in-chief of Advances in Physiology Education, acknowledges the challenges of receiving review comments and offers tips to achieving more positive outcomes when submitting scientific manuscripts.

Using Facebook to Supplement Neuroscience Studies Boosts Students’ Grades

Released August 24, 2017 - Some Saudi Arabian medical students are using Facebook as both an outlet for social networking and an effective learning tool. The study is published ahead of print in Advances in Physiology Education.

High Achievers in Competitive Courses More Likely to Cheat on College Exams

Released August 24, 2017 - A new study finds that students who are known as “high achievers” and take highly competitive courses are the most likely to cheat on their exams. The article is published ahead of print in Advances in Physiology Education.

Leading Experts Explore the Clinical, Translational Applications of Mitochondria

Released August 22, 2017 - Cross-disciplinary experts who study the mitochondria will convene at the APS “Physiological Bioenergetics: Mitochondria from Bench to Bedside” conference August 27–30 in San Diego. “While mitochondria are traditionally known as the powerhouse of the cell, accumulating studies demonstrate that the shape, movement and function of these organelles control much more in the cell beyond energy levels,” Sruti Shiva, PhD, researcher at the University of Pittsburgh and chair of the conference organizing committee, said.

miRNA Could Be Key in Predicting Atrial Fibrillation Risk Following Surgery

Released August 13, 2017 - One in three patients who undergo cardiac surgery—such as coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) or heart valve procedures—experience an irregular heartbeat after surgery (postoperative atrial fibrillation or PoAF). Researchers at Aurora Research Institute and Aurora Cardiovascular Services in Milwaukee have identified a molecule that can be measured with a noninvasive blood test to help predict the patients most at risk of this postoperative complication. They will present their findings at the Cardiovascular Aging: Old Friends and New Frontiers conference in Westminster, Colo.

Cardiovascular Aging Symposium Explores Dysfunction and Disease Development

Released August 12, 2017 - During the “Novel Implications for Blood Flow and Vascular Dysfunction in Non-cardiovascular Related Disease” symposium at the APS Cardiovascular Aging: New Frontiers and Old Friends conference, researchers will present findings that emphasize the interaction between age-related cardiovascular dysfunction and disease whose risk increases with age.

Menopausal Status May Better Predict Blood Vessel Health in Women than Fitness Level

Released August 12, 2017 - High physical fitness is known to be related to enhanced blood vessel dilation and blood flow (endothelial function) in aging men. However, for women, endothelial function and the effect of exercise may be related more to menopausal status than fitness. Researchers from the University of Massachusetts Amherst will present their findings today at the Cardiovascular Aging: New Frontiers and Old Friends conference in Westminster, Colo.

E-Cigarette Use Accelerates Effects of Cardiovascular Aging

Released August 12, 2017 - A new study suggests that a single exposure to e-cigarette (e-cig) vapor may be enough to impair vascular function. Researchers from West Virginia University will present findings today at the Cardiovascular Aging: New Frontiers and Old Friends meeting in Westminster, Colo.

Researchers Explore a Better Way to Measure Blood Pressure

Released August 12, 2017 - Automatic blood pressure devices are often used to assess blood pressure levels at home and in the clinic. But these automatic devices are prone to significant errors, sometimes leading to the prescription of blood pressure-lowering medications to patients who don’t actually need them. Researchers at the Jerusalem College of Technology and the Shaare Zedek Medical Center in Israel have developed a method to more accurately measure systolic blood pressure. They will present their findings at the Cardiovascular Aging: New Frontiers and Old Friends conference in Westminster, Colo.

Strategies to Optimize and Slow Cardiovascular Aging

Released August 11, 2017 - Heart disease remains the leading cause of death in the U.S. and growing older is the greatest—and most inevitable—risk factor for it. So what, if anything, can we do to keep our hearts and arteries as healthy as possible for as long as possible? Keynote speaker Douglas Seals, PhD, of the University of Colorado Boulder, will lay the groundwork of what we know and the promising research that could combat cardiovascular aging in his presentation “Strategies for Optimal Cardiovascular Aging.” Seals will present his lecture at the Cardiovascular Aging: New Frontiers and Old Friends conference in Westminster, Colo.

Caffeine Shortens Recovery Time from General Anesthesia

Released August 1, 2017 - Caffeine helps quickly boost wakefulness following general anesthesia, a new study finds. The stimulant—used daily by more than 90 percent of adults in the U.S.—appears to alter physiological function in two different ways to shorten recovery time. The paper, published ahead of print in the Journal of Neurophysiology, was chosen as an APSselect article for August.

Staying Young at Heart's the Focus of Upcoming Cardiovascular Conference

Released July 27, 2017 - Aging—the No. 1 risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease—and maintaining cardiovascular health is the main focus of the upcoming APS conference “Cardiovascular Aging: New Frontiers and Old Friends.” The conference—which will convene exercise, aging, cardiovascular and other researchers—will be held August 11–14, 2017, in Westminster, Colo.

Pollution Exposure during Pregnancy Increases Asthma Risk for Three Generations

Released July 18, 2017 - Exposure to environmental pollutants during pregnancy may increase the risk of asthma for as many as three consecutive generations, according to new research. The study is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology.

Aerobic Exercise Found Safe for Non-Dialysis Kidney Disease Patients

Released July 12, 2017 - A new study finds that moderate exercise does not impair kidney function in some people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The study—the first to analyze the effects of exercise on kidney disease that does not require dialysis—is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Renal Physiology. The paper was chosen as an APSselect article for July.

Stroke Recovery Window May Be Wider than We Think

Released July 12, 2017 - Stroke survivors may experience delayed recovery of limb function up to decades after injury, according to a new case study. The article, published ahead of print in the Journal of Neurophysiology, was chosen as an APSselect article for July.

Genetic Differences May Contribute to Changes in Astronauts’ Eyes

Released June 29, 2017 - Researchers have found that genetic variation may increase susceptibility of some astronauts to develop higher-than-normal carbon dioxide levels in the blood, which may contribute to eye abnormalities, including grooved bands on the retina in the eye and swelling of the optic nerve. The study is published in Physiological Reports.

Older Adults’ Lungs Remain Strong during Exercise

Released June 20, 2017 - Highly active older adults experience no limitations in the lungs’ capacity to exchange gases (lung-diffusing capacity) during physical activity, researchers have found. The study is published in the Journal of Applied Physiology.

APS Awards $267,350 to Its 2017 Undergraduate Research Fellows

Released June 13, 2017 - The American Physiological Society is pleased to announce it's 2017 Undergraduate Summer Research Fellows. Recipients of the Society’s four summer fellowship programs spend an average of 10 weeks in the laboratory of an established scientist and APS member.

Global Warming May Cause Spike in Asthma, Allergy Symptoms

Released June 6, 2017 - A new study finds that exposure to a widespread outdoor fungus can increase cell damage (oxidative stress) in the airways. This spike weakens the airways’ barrier defense system that, when functioning normally, removes infection- and allergy-causing organisms (mucociliary clearance). The study, published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Cell Physiology, was chosen as an APSselect article for June.

Dennis Brown, PhD, Becomes 90th President of the American Physiological Society

Released May 24, 2017 - Dennis Brown, PhD, assumed the presidency of the American Physiological Society (APS) in April, immediately following the APS annual meeting at Experimental Biology 2017. Brown is a professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School (HMS) and director of the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) program in membrane biology in the division of nephrology. He also serves as associate director of the MGH Center for Systems Biology and director of the MGH Office for Research Career Development (ORCD).

New Officers Begin Terms at American Physiological Society

Released May 24, 2017 - The American Physiological Society (APS) is pleased to announce its new leadership: President Elect Jeff M. Sands, MD, and Councilors Charles H. Lang, PhD; Merry L. Lindsey, PhD; and Ronald M. Lynch, PhD. The new officers were elected by the APS membership and took office last month at the Experimental Biology meeting in Chicago.

Exposure to Alcohol Before Birth May Make Drinking More Appealing to Teens

Released May 18, 2017 - A new study suggests that fetal alcohol exposure (FAE) reduces the taste system’s responsiveness to the bitter flavor and burning sensation of many varieties of alcoholic beverages. These factors make alcohol unappealing to some people, but, for reasons that are unclear, are less of a deterrent in young people exposed to alcohol before birth. The study is published ahead of print in the Journal of Neurophysiology.

Beetroot Juice May Provide Benefits to Heart Disease Patients

Released May 10, 2017 - A new study finds that dietary nitrate—a compound that dilates blood vessels to decrease blood pressure—may reduce overstimulation of the sympathetic nervous system that occurs with heart disease. The research team looked specifically at beetroot juice, a source of dietary nitrate, to explore its use as a future targeted treatment option for people with cardiovascular disease. The study, published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Heart and Circulatory Physiology, is the first to study the effects of nitrate supplementation on sympathetic nerve activity.

Prolonged Military-Style Training Causes Changes to Intestinal Bacteria

Released May 4, 2017 - A new study finds that long periods of physiological stress can change the composition of microorganisms residing in the intestines (intestinal microbiota), which could increase health risks in endurance athletes and military personnel. The study, published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, is the first to study the response of the intestinal microbiota during military training. The manuscript was chosen as an APSselect article for May.

Can Aromatherapy Calm Competition Horses?

Released April 26, 2017 - Although studies suggest that inhaling certain scents may reduce stress in humans, aromatherapy is relatively unexplored in veterinary medicine. But new research presented today at the Experimental Biology 2017 meeting in Chicago raises the question of whether aromatherapy may be beneficial to horses as well.

Intense Training without Proper Recovery May Compromise Bone Health in Elite Rowers

Released April 25, 2017 - Bone mineral density, an indicator of bone strength, typically increases with regular exercise acting as a protective mechanism against bone fractures and osteoporosis. But a new study suggests that the extended, high-intensity training sessions of elite athletes could reverse beneficial bone changes. Researchers from Brock University in Canada will present their findings today at the Experimental Biology 2017 meeting in Chicago.

Vitamin A + High-Fat Diet = Increased Risk for Obesity, Diabetes

Released April 25, 2017 - Vitamin A is an essential nutrient that the human body needs to function properly. But new research presented today at the Experimental Biology 2017 meeting in Chicago suggests that normal levels of vitamin A within a high-fat diet can negatively affect expression of liver genes associated with glucose and fat metabolism.

EB Highlights - Wednesday, April 26, 2017

APS EB Highlights for Wednesday, April 26, 2017.

How Walking Benefits the Brain

Released April 24, 2017 - Researchers at New Mexico Highlands University (NMHU) found that the foot’s impact during walking sends pressure waves through the arteries that significantly modify and can increase the supply of blood to the brain. The research is presented at the APS annual meeting at Experimental Biology 2017 in Chicago.

Starvation Prompts Body Temperature, Blood Sugar Changes to Tolerate Next Food Limitation

Release April 24, 2017 - Rats that have experienced past episodes of limited food resources make physiological adaptations that may extend their lives the next time they are faced with starvation. New research about starvation physiology will be presented today at the Experimental Biology 2017 meeting in Chicago.

EB Highlights - Tuesday, April 25, 2017

APS EB Highlights for Tuesday, April 25, 2017.

Altered Immune Cells May Both Contribute to Preeclampsia and Offer New Hope for Treatment

Released April 23, 2017 - In a new study presented at the APS annual meeting at Experimental Biology 2017, researchers have found that the immune system’s natural killer (NK) cells activate and change in response to placental ischemia. Disrupting these altered cells seems to blunt some of the dangerous complications of the condition, including high blood pressure (hypertension) and inflammation in the mother and growth restriction in the fetus.

EB Highlights - Monday. April 24, 2017

APS EB Highlights for Monday, April 24, 2017.

EB Highlights - Sunday, April 23, 2017

APS EB Highlights for Sunday, April 23, 2017.

EB Highlights - Saturday, April 22, 2017

APS EB Highlights for Saturday, April 22, 2017.

APS 2017 Distinguished Lectureship Award Winners to Present Talks at Experimental Biology

Released April 18, 2017 - APS is pleased to recognize our outstanding Distinguished Lecturer honorees—including Michael J. Welsh, MD; Brant Isakson, PhD; and Kurt Albertine, PhD—who will present their talks at the APS annual meeting at Experimental Biology 2017.

APS Celebrates 50 Years of Diversity in Physiology during Porter Fellowship Anniversary

Released April 19, 2017 - Since 1967, the American Physiological Society’s (APS’s) Porter Physiology Development Fellowship has supported 140 minority doctoral and postdoctoral researchers in the study of the physiological sciences and related careers. In honor of the program’s 50th anniversary, APS shares the stories of 24 past Fellows in a commemorative book and will celebrate current and past Porter Fellows and the legacy of the Fellowship at Experimental Biology in Chicago and throughout 2017.

Nobel Laureate, Esteemed Researchers Participate in APS President’s Symposium

Released April 18, 2017 - APS President Jane Reckelhoff, PhD, of the University of Mississippi Medical Center, has developed an engaging President’s Symposium Series to be presented during the 2017 Experimental Biology meeting in Chicago. Three symposia will focus on the theme “Research Advances in Sex/Gender and Developmental Programming of Chronic Diseases.”

Cortical Nerve Function in Former Amputees Remains Poor Decades after Reconstructive Surgery

Released April 11, 2017 - Researchers have found that the nerve cells (neurons) controlling sensation and movement of the hands show injury-induced changes for years after hand amputation, reattachment or transplant. The small study, the first of its kind to non-invasively explore the health and function of the cortical neurons (neuronal integrity) in these populations at the neurochemical level, is published ahead of print in the Journal of Neurophysiology. The manuscript was chosen as an APSselect article for April.

To Eat or Not to Eat (Before Exercising): That Is the Question

Released April 6, 2017 - Exercise enthusiasts often wonder whether it’s better to eat or fast before a workout. A new study is the first of its kind to show the effects of eating versus fasting on gene expression in adipose (fat) tissue in response to exercise. This difference highlights the different roles fat plays in powering and responding to exercise. The study is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism.

EB 2017 Highlights - APS News Update Special Edition

Organized by date, this special edition of our bi-weekly member e-newsletter features “can’t-miss” highlights from the APS EB 2017 program.

High-Fat Diet during Pregnancy Compromises Offspring’s Lung Health

Released March 29, 2017 - Women who follow a high-fat diet during pregnancy may increase their children’s risk for asthma. A mouse study by Oregon Health and Science University researchers suggests that consistent consumption of fat-laden foods may change the immune response of the offsprings’ respiratory system. The article is published in Physiological Reports.

Statins May Provide Treatment Alternative for Chronic Liver Disease

Released March 23, 2017 - Statin drugs are widely used to manage high cholesterol and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. But in a new review of more than 50 studies, researchers cite reductions in liver inflammation and improvements in other related factors as reasons why statins make good candidates for treating chronic liver disease. The article is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology.

Synched Work Schedules during “Antarctic Summer” May Affect Sleep, Wake Hormones

Released March 9, 2017 - The continuous daylight conditions of summer in Antarctica are known to interfere with physiological functions such as sleep patterns and the release of melatonin, a hormone associated with circadian rhythms and sleep. Now, a study offers new information about why people in this region sleep poorly, and suggests that social behavior may also play a role. The study, published ahead of print in the Journal of Applied Physiology, was chosen as an APSselect article for March.

Caffeine Reduces Oxidative Stress, Improves Oxygen-Induced Lung Injury

Released March 8, 2017 - A new study finds that caffeine may protect the lungs from damage caused by prolonged oxygen therapy, such as oxygen supplementation given to premature babies. The article is the first of its kind to study the positive effects of caffeine on the lungs’ minute tissue structures. It is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology.

“Superhero Physiology: the Case for Captain America”

Released February 28, 2017 - A common challenge to educators across all disciplines is making learning interesting for students. Researchers from Mississippi State University outline a compelling strategy to teach physiology to undergraduate students: using real physiological concepts to explain some of the extreme physical transformations of the fictional superhero Captain America. The article is published in Advances in Physiology Education.

Raising Dietary Potassium to Sodium Ratio Helps Reduce Heart, Kidney Disease

Released February 21, 2017 - Reducing sodium (salt) in the diet has been recommended to lower blood pressure and the risk of heart disease. However, in a new review article, University of Southern California researchers found that increasing dietary potassium is as important to improving the risk factors for cardiovascular and kidney disease as limiting dietary sodium. The article is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism.

Sports-Related Concussion Negatively Affects Heart Rate, Blood Pressure

Released February 9, 2017 - A new study finds that concussion causes short-term impairment of the cardiovascular system but that these cardiovascular symptoms typically resolve within three days of the injury. The article is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology.

Researchers Find Unhealthy Gut Microbes a Cause of Hypertension

Released February 2, 2017 - Researchers have found that the microorganisms residing in the intestines (microbiota) play a role in the development of high blood pressure in rats. The study is published in Physiological Genomics. It was chosen as an APSselect article for February.

Whole-Body Heat Stress Lowers Exercise Capacity, Blood Flow in Men

Released February 1, 2017 - Researchers have found that prolonged exposure to high temperatures can raise both the skin and core temperature, reducing blood flow to the brain and limbs during exercise and limiting the ability to exercise for long periods. The study, the first of its kind to separate the effects of skin- versus internal-raised temperature (hyperthermia), is published in Physiological Reports.

APS Announces Move to Atypon for Journal Hosting

Released January 31, 2017 - APS will move its physiology research journal titles to Atypon’s Literatum platform, the professional and scholarly publishing industry’s technologically advanced and most widely used online publishing platform for hosting published content.

APS and ADI Announce Partnership to Provide Enhanced Scientific Community Support

Released January 31, 2017 - ADI will expand its financial support for a range of early career research awards across a number of fields, including cardiovascular, respiratory, physiological genomics and neural control and autonomic regulation as part of its new partnership with APS.

Food and Antibiotics May Change Microorganisms in Gut, Causing IBS

Released January 26, 2017 - A recent review of research suggests that changes to the microorganisms (microbiota) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract may be a cause of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The review article is published in the American Journal of Physiology—Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology.

Type, Not Just Amount, of Sugar Consumption Matters in Risk of Health Problems

Released January 19, 2017 - The type of sugar you eat—and not just calorie count—may determine your risk for chronic disease. A new study is the first of its kind to compare the effects of two types of sugar on metabolic and vascular function. The paper is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Heart and Circulatory Physiology.

Fit after 100: Training Helps French Bicyclist Beat His Own World Record at 103

Released January 12, 2017 - Adults over 100 years old can still increase their athletic performance and physical fitness with regular training, researchers have found. The case study of Robert Marchand, the now 105-year-old who recently broke the 100+ cycling record—again—is published ahead of print in the Journal of Applied Physiology.

Nerve-Signaling Protein Regulates Gene Associated with Schizophrenia

Released January 5, 2017 - Researchers from the University of California, San Diego, have identified a protein that regulates a gene associated with schizophrenia. The study, published in the Journal of Neurophysiology, was chosen as an APSselect article for January.

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