Essays on APS Classic Papers

The American Physiological Society is proud to announce that the full historical content of its 14 journals, going back to the very first issues of the American Journal of Physiology in 1898, is now available online. To commemorate this event, we have asked authors to write essays on some of the most significant articles from the body of APS literature.

Adrenal cortex: scalpels, syringes, and separatory funnels
by Susan F. Akana
The physiology of the peripheral vestibular system: the birth of a field
by Dora E. Angelaki
Comments on Classical Papers
by K. M. Baldwin
The exercise dose response: key lessons from the past
by Marcas M. Bamman
Postnatal Developmental Renal Physiology: A Study of Historic Significance
by Michel Baum
Alpha and Beta Adrenergic Receptors: Ahlquist's Landmark Hypothesis of a Single Mediator with Two Receptors
by David B. Bylund


Estimation of dose-response curves and identification of peaks in hormone pulsations: classic marriages of statistics to science
by Douglas Curran-Everett


Adrenocortical function, feedback, and alphabet soup
by Mary F. Dallman


The use of mammalian cortical kidney slices for the study of tubule secretion: a pioneering step toward understanding organic anion transport
by William H. Dantzler 
Berne’s adenosine hypothesis of coronary blood flow control
by Eric O. Feigl


Acute hypoxia and pulmonary vasoconstriction in humans: uncovering the mechanism of the pressor response
by Alfred P. Fishman 
Two classic papers in acid-base physiology: contributions of R. F. Pitts, R. S. Alexander, and W. D. Lotspeich
by Gerhard Giebisch


Discovery of the luteinizing hormone of the anterior pituitary gland
by H. Maurice Goodman  
Studying the visual system in awake monkeys: two classic papers by Robert H. Wurtz
by Michael E. Goldberg


Roger Sperry: pioneer of neuronal specificity
by Bernice Grafstein  
Relating cardiac performance with oxygen consumption: historical observations continue to spawn scientific discovery
by David D. Gutterman and Allen W. Cowley, Jr.  


The pioneering use of systems analysis to study cardiac output regulation
by John E. Hall   
Ca-induced Ca release: lessons regarding cell models
by David R. Harder   


Synaptic chemistry in single neurons: GABA is identified as an inhibitory neurotransmitter
by Ronald Harris-Warrick 
The development of clearance methods for measurement of glomerular filtration and tubular reabsorption
by T. H. Hostetter and T.W. Meyer  


Nature vs. nurture: can exercise really alter fiber type composition in human skeletal muscle?
by Christopher P. Ingalls   
A dogged pursuit of coincidence
by Philip X. Joris  


Muscle, liver, and pancreas: Three Musketeers fighting to control glycemia
by Amira Klip and Mladen Vranic 
Dead space: Simplicity to complexity
by Robert A. Klocke 


Significance of urea transport: the pioneering studies of Bodil Schmidt-Nielsen
by Juha P. Kokko and Jeff M. Sands 
Hypothalamic control of body temperature: insights from the past
by Gary W. Mack   


Placing pain on the sensory map: Classic papers by Ed Perl and colleagues
by Peggy Mason 
Making the retina approachable
by Gary Matthews 


The size principle: a rule describing the recruitment of motoneurons
by Lorne M. Mendell    
Microvascular permeability, ultra-filtration, and restricted diffusion
by C. C. Michel


Sex-based physiology prior to political correctness
by Virginia M. Miller   
Stresses on pulmonary blood vessels
by Wayne Mitzner  


The basis for transport across epithelial cells
by Marshall H. Montrose   
Comroe's study of aortic chemoreceptors: a path well chosen
by Judith A. Neubauer  


The significance of the blood gas analyzer
by Hershel Raff    
Discovering the role of the adrenal gland in the control of body function
by David C. Randall  


Eugene M. Landis and the physiology of the microcirculation
by E. M. Renkin   
Discovering the mechanism of capacitative calcium entry
by Juan A. Rosado  


Micropuncture: unlocking the secrets of renal function
by Jeff M. Sands   
Experimental validation of the countercurrent model of urinary concentration
by James A. Schafer  


What do dendrites and their synapses tell the neuron?
by Idan Segev 
First electrodes for blood Po2 and Pco2 determination
by John W. Severinghaus
Anterior pituitary hormones: development of a bioassay leading to the discovery of prolactin
by M. Susan Smith
Aristides Leão’s discovery of cortical spreading depression
by G. G. Somjen


Renal Potassium Transport: The pioneering studies of Gerhard Giebisch
by Bruce A. Stanton
Dr. Bernice Grafstein’s paper on the mechanism of spreading depression
by Anthony J. Strong  
The paper that completely altered our thinking about cerebral blood flow measurement
by Richard J. Traystman 
The beginning of a fantastic, unanswered question: is 5-HT involved in systemic hypertension?
by Stephanie W. Watts
Understanding pulmonary gas exchange: ventilation-perfusion relationships
by John B. West  
Circuits and Properties of Signal Transmission in the Retina
by Paul Witkovsky, William K. Stell, and Andrew T. Ishida


Discovering spatial working memory fields in prefrontal cortex
by Xiao-Jing Wang  

Introduction to the Classic Essays

by Hershel Raff, Dale Benos, and Margaret Reich

Honoring Our Past

An introduction to the JN Classic Papers by Eve Marder.

Original Classic Papers

Read the original articles that have been singled out as "APS Classic Papers" for free.

Submission Guidelines

Suggest a classic article in Physiology, or write an essay on one.