Manuscript Formatting Requirements


File Formats for Online Submission and Publication

Manuscripts may be submitted to the APS Peer Review system in the following formats: Microsoft Word (.doc or .docx), Rich Text Format (.rtf), or PDF. Manuscript submissions should contain all required elements, such as the abstract, all main text, bibliography, figures, figure legends, tables, and table legends, and any proposed supplemental material in a single file.

APS accepts manuscripts in one of two formats: double-spaced in wide, one-column, traditional manuscript format, or single-spaced in two-column journal format. You may embed copies of the figures into the text for review purposes, but if you choose to embed figures, any revisions to figures during review (see instructions for Preparing Figures) will require you to upload the newly revised individual figure files to our online submission system, and the copies you had previously embedded must also be updated to reflect the revised figures.


All text should conform to standard American English style and usage. Authors for whom English is not their native language are strongly encouraged to seek the aid of a professional English language editorial service. Be sure that the language in your manuscript is original, without inclusion of any previously published textual passages (including those from authors’ own prior publications). Authors may wish to screen their manuscript for textual similarities prior to submission using fee for service scholarly publishing databases such as iThenticate or other free general screening databases including Plagiarism Checker. Please note that APS does not endorse any screening program nor guarantees that these screening tools will detect all instances of textual overlap.

The following companies specialize in life sciences and medicine (and other areas of science) and will edit your manuscript for a fee. Please note that these companies are not associated with the American Physiological Society.

Spelling and Editorial Style

Authors should consult Webster's Third New International Dictionary or Merriam Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 11th edition, for spelling and compounding. The APS Journals follow American English rules for spelling. All manuscripts will be edited by highly trained professional copy editors, according to the APS house style and guidelines.

Abbreviations, Symbols, and Terminology

Abbreviations should be defined at first usage. However, at the discretion of the APS editorial staff, many internationally accepted (or otherwise compellingly conventional) abbreviations do not need to be defined; please consult the list of accepted abbreviations. For word usage, symbols, etc., authors are referred to Scientific Style and Format: The CBE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (6th ed., 1994). For chemical and biochemical terms and abbreviations, consult the recommendations of the IUPAC-IUB Combined Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature. Isotope specification must conform to the IUPAC system. Authors are referred to the following articles for style in specialized fields: "Glossary on respiration and gas exchange" (J Appl Physiol 34: 549-558, 1973); and "Glossary of terms for thermal physiology" (J Appl Physiol 35: 941-961, 1973).

Special Symbols

For special characters not available on the standard 104-key keyboard (e.g., Greek characters, mathematical symbols, figure symbols), use the Symbol font or use the "Insert Symbol" function in Microsoft Word; do not use Math font or image files (e.g., GIF) within the text for special characters or text constructions.

Trade Names

Proprietary (trademarked) names should be capitalized, with the spelling carefully checked. The generic name or generic descriptor accompany the trade name the first time it appears.

Gene, Protein, and Species Nomenclature

Authors should use standard nomenclature and annotation, following current established conventions for properly presenting gene vs. protein symbols and names, as well as using current scientific binomial species names, in accordance with the appropriate official organization. For human genes, contact the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC). For mouse genes, contact Mouse Genomic Informatics (MGI) for mouse genes. For rat genes, contact the Rat Genome Database (RGD). Other resources are available for other species, and authors are expected to seek out such resources during the manuscript composition process and/or during revision.

Cell Lines and Reagents

In the Methods section, the source of cells utilized (species, sex, strain, race, age of donor, whether primary or established) should be clearly indicated. The Methods section should state if cell line authentication has been carried out and by what method (e.g., STR profiling). The source of reagents should be stated (name, city, and state within parentheses) when first cited. If tests to rule out the presence of mycoplasmal contamination were not performed, this fact should be clearly stated. Other data relating to unique biological, biochemical, and/or immunological markers should also be included if available, with their source identified. Publication of results is based on the principle that results must be independently verifiable. Authors are expected to make unique reagents available to qualified investigators either directly or through a recognized distributor. See also standards for cell line authenticationUnique Materials and Data Banks and Ethical Policies for other requirements.