Example References

Journal Articles

1. Villalobos AR, Parmelee JT, Renfro JL. Choline uptake across the ventricular membrane of neonate rat choroid plexus. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 276: C1288-C1296, 1999.

Book References

1. Ausubel FM, Brent R, Kingston RE, Moore DD, Seidman JG, Smith JA, Struhl K. Current Protocols in Molecular Biology. New York: Wiley, 1995, p. 25-26.

2. Pollock DM. Endothelin receptor subtypes and tissue distribution. In: Endothelin Molecular Biology, Physiology, and Pathology, edited by Highsmith RF. Totowa, NJ: Humana, 1998.

APS Handbook of Physiology Series

Large text books require very specific citation information. For example, the APS Handbooks series contains a huge amount of information, and the inclusion in the citation of the section, volume, part, and chapter is essential to aid the reader in finding the information quickly (please note that the APS chooses not to list editors for the APS Handbooks).

1. Kaufman MP, Forster HV. Reflexes controlling circulatory, ventilatory, and airway responses to exercise. In: Handbook of Physiology. Exercise: Regulation and Integration of Multiple Systems. Control of Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems. Bethesda, MD: Am. Physiol. Soc., 1996, sect. 12, pt. II, chapt. 10, p. 381-447.

Articles Published on the Web

Many more reports than in past years are being published primarily, if not exclusively, on the World Wide Web. Such articles should be cited in the "online" style as shown below.

Author/editor (if known). (Revision or copyright date, if available). Title of page [Publication medium]. Page publisher. URL (Protocol://Site/Path/File) [Access date].

1. Dudoit S, Yang YH, Callow MJ, Speed TJ. Statistical methods for identifying differentially expressed genes in replicated cDNA microarray experiments [Online]. Dept. of Statistics, Univ. of California at Berkeley. http://www.stat.berkeley.edu/users/terry/zarray/Html/matt.html [3 Sept. 2000].

2. Friedman N, Linial M, Nachman I, Peter D. Using Bayesian networks to analyze expression data [Online]. Stanford University. http://robotics.stanford.edu/people/nir/Abstracts/FLNP1Full.html [2000].

Note that the date may be general or specific, to the day.

Some citations may have portions published in print and other relevant portions deposited online. However, if directions to the online portions are available in the printed work, this sort of citation should be avoided.

1. Joachims T. Making large-scale SVM learning practical. In: Advances in Kernel Methods: Support Vector Learning, edited by Schulkopf B, Burges C, and Smola A. MIT Press, 1999. [The software is available at http://www-ai.cs.uni-dortmund.de/SOFTWARE/SVM_LIGHT/svm_light.eng.html]

 2. Spellman PT, Sherlock G, Zhang MQ, Iyer VR, Anders K, Eisen MB, Brown PO, Botstein D, Futcher B. Comprehensive identification of cell cycle-regulated genes of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by microarray hybridization. Mol Biol Cell 9: 3273-3297, 1998. [The data are available at http://cellcycle-www.stanford.edu]

DOIs and Early Publication in Articles in PresS

Current technology allows publication of an article in several editions. For example, the final, citable draft of an accepted article may be posted to a web site, pending final copyediting and page layout/design. This initial post to the web qualifies as publication, but eventually the article will reach the readership in a final, polished form.

The APS publishes peer-reviewed articles upon acceptance as Articles in PresS. These articles may be cited and establish publication's priority before they appear in final print and online forms. (Please note the required use of a "digital object identifier" -- DOI -- in this citation.)

1. Scarafia LE, Winter A, Swinney DC. Quantitative expression analysis of the cellular specificity of HECT-domain ubiquitin E3 ligases. Physiol Genomics (April 26, 2001). doi:10.1152/physiolgenomics.00075.2001.

However, once this article has reached its final stage of publication, it will be cited with is new publication data, as follows:

1. Scarafia LE, Winter A, Swinney DC. Quantitative expression analysis of the cellular specificity of HECT-domain ubiquitin E3 ligases. Physiol Genomics 4: 147-153, 2001. First published April 26, 2001; doi:10.1152/physiolgenomics.00075.2001.

Technical Documents, Congress Proceedings, etc.

Technical documents, congress proceedings, and some other sorts of material may often be published by the specific institution that sponsored the research.

1. Efron R, Tibshirani B, Goss V, Chu G. Microarrays and Their Use in a Comparative Experiment (Technical Report). Palo Alto, CA: Department of Statistics, Stanford University, 2000.


If an article required a correction, after first publication, this should be noted in the citation of the original article.

1. Hallows KR, Packman CH, Knauf PA. Acute cell volume changes in anisotonic media affect F-actin content of HL-60 cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 261: C1154-C1161, 1991. (Corrigendum. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 268: March 1995, following table of contents)

2. Steenman M, Chen YW, Le Cunff M, Lamirault G, Varro A, Hoffman E, Leger JJ. Transcriptomal analysis of failing and nonfailing human hearts. Physiol Genomics 12: 97-112, 2003. First published November 12, 2002; doi:10.1152/physiolgenomics.00148.2002. (Corrigendum. Physiol Genomics 18:128, 2004)


1. Fritsch G, Hitzig E. Uber die Elektrische. In: Some Papers on the Cerebral Cortex, translated and edited by von Bomin G. Springfield, IL: Thomas, 1960, p. 73-96.

2. Gavrilov KA, Perel TS. Earthworms and other invertebrates in the soil under...[in Russian]. Pochovedenia 8: 133-140, 1958.

3. Gavrilov KA, Perel TS. Earthworms and other invertebrates in the soil under...[in Russian, English summary]. Pochovedenia 8: 133-140, 1958.

4. Vol'Kensktein MV. Molecules and Life: An Introduction to Molecular Biology. New York: Plenum, 1970. [Transl. from the Russian.]

Many Authors

It is APS Publications policy to list all authors in a research group. That is, the use of only the first author's name, followed by "et al." is unacceptable.

1. Lander ES et al. Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome. Nature 409: 860-921, 2001.

should read:

1. Lander ES, Linton LM, Birren B, Nusbaum C, Zody MC, Baldwin J, Devon K, Dewar K, Doyle M, FitzHugh W, Funke R, Gage D, Harris K, Heaford A, Howland J, Kann L, Lehoczky J, LeVine R, McEwan P, McKernan K, Meldrim J, Mesirov JP, Miranda C, Morris W, Naylor J, Raymond C, Rosetti M, Santos R, Sheridan A, Sougnez C, Stange-Thomann N, Stojanovic N, Subramanian A, Wyman D, Rogers J, Sulston J, Ainscough R, Beck S, Bentley D, Burton J, Clee C, Carter N, Coulson A, Deadman R, Deloukas P, Dunham A, Dunham I, Durbin R, French L, Grafham D, Gregory S, Hubbard T, Humphray S, Hunt A, Jones M, Lloyd C, McMurray A, Matthews L, Mercer S, Milne S, Mullikin JC, Mungall A, Plumb R, Ross M, Shownkeen R, Sims S, Waterston RH, Wilson RK, Hillier LW, McPherson JD, Marra MA, Mardis ER, Fulton LA, Chinwalla AT, Pepin KH, Gish WR, Chissoe SL, Wendl MC, Delehaunty KD, Miner TL, Delehaunty A, Kramer JB, Cook LL, Fulton RS, Johnson DL, Minx PJ, Clifton SW, Hawkins T, Branscomb E, Predki P, Richardson P, Wenning S, Slezak T, Doggett N, Cheng JF, Olsen A, Lucas S, Elkin C, Uberbacher E, Frazier M, Gibbs RA, Muzny DM, Scherer SE, Bouck JB, Sodergren EJ, Worley KC, Rives CM, Gorrell JH, Metzker ML, Naylor SL, Kucherlapati RS, Nelson DL, Weinstock GM, Sakaki Y, Fujiyama A, Hattori M, Yada T, Toyoda A, Itoh T, Kawagoe C, Watanabe H, Totoki Y, Taylor T, Weissenbach J, Heilig R, Saurin W, Artiguenave F, Brottier P, Bruls T, Pelletier E, Robert C, Wincker P, Smith DR, Doucette-Stamm L, Rubenfield M, Weinstock K, Lee HM, Dubois J, Rosenthal A, Platzer M, Nyakatura G, Taudien S, Rump A, Yang H, Yu J, Wang J, Huang G, Gu J, Hood L, Rowen L, Madan A, Qin S, Davis RW, Federspiel NA, Abola AP, Proctor MJ, Myers RM, Schmutz J, Dickson M, Grimwood J, Cox DR, Olson MV, Kaul R, Raymond C, Shimizu N, Kawasaki K, Minoshima S, Evans GA, Athanasiou M, Schultz R, Roe BA, Chen F, Pan H, Ramser J, Lehrach H, Reinhardt R, McCombie WR, de la Bastide M, Dedhia N, Blocker H, Hornischer K, Nordsiek G, Agarwala R, Aravind L, Bailey JA, Bateman A, Batzoglou S, Birney E, Bork P, Brown DG, Burge CB, Cerutti L, Chen HC, Church D, Clamp M, Copley RR, Doerks T, Eddy SR, Eichler EE, Furey TS, Galagan J, Gilbert JG, Harmon C, Hayashizaki Y, Haussler D, Hermjakob H, Hokamp K, Jang W, Johnson LS, Jones TA, Kasif S, Kaspryzk A, Kennedy S, Kent WJ, Kitts P, Koonin EV, Korf I, Kulp D, Lancet D, Lowe TM, McLysaght A, Mikkelsen T, Moran JV, Mulder N, Pollara VJ, Ponting CP, Schuler G, Schultz J, Slater G, Smit AF, Stupka E, Szustakowski J, Thierry-Mieg D, Thierry-Mieg J, Wagner L, Wallis J, Wheeler R, Williams A, Wolf YI, Wolfe KH, Yang SP, Yeh RF, Collins F, Guyer MS, Peterson J, Felsenfeld A, Wetterstrand KA, Patrinos A, Morgan MJ, Szustakowki J, de Jong P, Catanese JJ, Osoegawa K, Shizuya H, Choi S, Chen YJ. Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome. Nature 409: 860-921, 2001.

However, if there is an inclusive name for the research group as a whole (as in the case above, the " International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium"), it should be used rather than listing hundreds of authors.

So, for example, it is correct to cite:

1. International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium. Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome. Nature 409: 860�921, 2001.