Physiology in Health and Disease

Your bridge between basic science and clinical medicine. Each book brings together fresh ideas in the study of disease states and crucial physiological function. Each is meticulously edited by leaders in the field it covers.

Titles in this Series


The Physiology of Exercise in Spinal Cord Injury

The Physiology of Exercise in Spinal Cord Injury

Andrew J. Taylor (Ed.)

2016, VI + 286 pp.; 42 illus., 12 in color

ISBN 978-1-4939-6664-6 (ebook); 978-1-4939-6662-2 (hardcover)

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ABOUT THIS BOOK

  • Every year, around the world, between 250,000 and 500,000 people suffer a spinal cord injury (SCI). Those with an SCI are two to five times more likely to die prematurely than people without a spinal cord injury, with worse survival rates in low- and middle-income countries. Dynamic aerobic requires integrated physiologic responses across the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, autonomic, pulmonary, thermoregulatory, and immunologic systems. Moreover, regular aerobic exercise beneficially impacts these same systems, reducing the risk for a range of diseases and maladies. This book will present comprehensive information on the unique physiologic effects of SCI and the potential role of exercise in treating and mitigating these effects. In addition, it will incorporate work from scientists across a number of disciplines and have contributors at multiple levels of investigation and across physiologic systems. Furthermore, SCI can be considered an accelerated form of aging due to the severely restricted physical inactivity imposed, usually at an early age. Therefore, the information presented may have a broader importance to the physiology of aging as it relates to inactivity. Lastly, the need for certain levels of regular aerobic exercise to engender adaptations beneficial to health is not altered by the burden of an SCI. Indeed, the amounts of exercise necessary may be even greater than the able-bodied due to ‘passive’ ambulation. This book will also address the potential health benefits for those with an SCI that can be realized if a sufficient exercise stimulus is provided.

Obesity: Intergenerational Programming and ConsequencesParental Obesity:
Intergenerational Programming and Consequences

Lucy R. Green, Robert L. Hester (Eds.)

2016, XII + 389 pp.; 32 illus., 22 in color

ISBN 978-1-4939-6386-7 (ebook); 978-1-4939-6384-3 (hardcover)

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  • In this book, leading figures in the field of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease provide up-to-date information from human clinical trials, cohorts, and animal physiology experiments to reveal the interdependence between parental obesity and health of the offspring. Obesity of the mother and father produces obesity in their offspring, so we are caught up in an intergenerational cycle, which means that even our children’s future health is in peril. This book gives a timely and much-needed synthesis of the mechanisms, potential targets of future interventions, and the challenges that need to be overcome in order to break the intergenerational cycle of obesity. This has profound implications for the way in which scientific, clinical and health policy activities are to be directed in order to combat the so-called epidemic of obesity, as well as diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease. The book will be of interest to students, clinicians, researchers and health policy makers who are either seeking an introduction to the area of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease or have a specific interest in the pathogenesis of obesity.

Circadian Clocks cover

Circadian Clocks: Role in Health and Disease

Gumz, Michelle L. (Ed.)
2016, vi + 378 pp.; 43 illus., 22 in color
ISBN 978-1-4939-3450-8 (ebook); 978-1-4939-3448-5 (hardcover)
Series: Physiology in Health and Disease

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ABOUT THIS BOOK

  • Updates readers on new findings concerning the essential role of biological rhythms
  • Addresses both basic research and clinical aspects
  • Written by leading scientists and clinicians

This book sheds new light on the molecular mechanisms that generate circadian rhythms. It examines how biological rhythms influence physiological processes such as sleep, hormone synthesis and secretion, immunity, kidney function, the cardiovascular system, blood pressure, and the digestive system. Clinical implications are considered while exploring the impact of rhythms on neuropsychiatric disorders and chronotherapy’s potential for reducing cardiovascular risk. Offering a cross-section of expertise in both basic and translational (bench-to-bedside) research, this book serves as a guide for physicians and scientists who wish to learn more about the impact of circadian rhythms on physiological processes in health and disease.



Ion Channels cover  

Ion Channels and Transporters of Epithelia in Health and Disease

Hamilton, Kirk L., Devor, Daniel C. (Eds.)
2016, xiv + 1019 pp.; 137 illus., 44 in color
ISBN 978-1-4939-3366-2 (ebook); 978-1-4939-3364-8 (hardcover)
Series: Physiology in Health and Disease

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ABOUT THIS BOOK

  • Updates readers on essential findings concerning the cell physiology, biochemistry, pathophysiology and pharmacology of epithelial ion transport
  • Addresses both basic research and clinical aspects
  • All chapters written by leading scientists and clinicians

This book sheds new light on the physiology, molecular biology and pathophysiology of epithelial ion channels and transporters. It combines the basic cellular models and functions by means of a compelling clinical perspective, addressing aspects from the laboratory bench to the bedside. The individual chapters, written by leading scientists and clinicians, explore specific ion channels and transporters located in the epithelial tissues of the kidney, intestine, pancreas and respiratory tract, all of which play a crucial part in maintaining homeostasis. Further topics include the fundamentals of epithelial transport; mathematical modeling of ion transport; cell volume regulation; membrane protein folding and trafficking; transepithelial transport functions; and lastly, a discussion of transport proteins as potential pharmacological targets with a focus on the pharmacology of potassium channels.



Sodium and Water Homeostasis cover  

Sodium and Water Homeostasis
Comparative, Evolutionary and Genetic Models

Hyndman, Kelly Anne, Pannabecker, Thomas L. (Eds.)
2015, VI + 325 pp.; 25 illus., 40 in color.
ISBN 978-1-4939-3213-9 (ebook); 978-1-4939-3212-2 (hardcover)
Series: Physiology in Health and Disease

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ABOUT THIS BOOK

  • Features current innovative topics in the field of sodium and water homeostasis
  • Features domestic and international contributions from experts in the field
  • Covers multiple organ systems and cellular processes

This book presents cutting edge methods that provide insights into the pathways by which salt and water traverse cell membranes and flow in an orchestrated fashion amongst the many compartments of the body. It focuses on a number of molecular, cellular and whole animal studies that involve multiple physiological systems and shows how the internal milieu is regulated by multifactorial gene regulation, molecular signaling, and cell and organ architecture.

Topics covered include: water channels, the urinary concentrating mechanism, angiotensin, the endothelin system, miRNAs and MicroRNA in osmoregulation, desertadapted mammals, the giraffe kidney, mosquito Malpighian tubules, and circadian rhythms. The book highlights how different approaches to explaining the same physiological processes greatly increase our understanding of these fundamental processes. Greater integration of comparative, evolutionary and genetic animal models in basic science and medical science will improve our overall grasp of the mechanisms of sodium and water balance.



High Altitude and Man

West, John B.; Lahiri, Sukhamay (Eds.)
Originally Published by Lippincott William and Wilkins 1984
1984, 200 p.
ISBN 978-1-4614-7525-5

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ABOUT THIS BOOK

  • Leading authorities on high-altitude physiology contribute to this work
  • Focuses on man at extreme altitude, sleep and restoration
  • Also focuses on physiology of permanent residents of high altitude

Leading authorities on high-altitude physiology contribute to this work, which is divided into three sections: Man at Extreme Altitude; Sleep and Restoration at High Altitude; and Physiology of Permanent Residents of High Altitude. Based on a symposium on physiology at high altitude sponsored by the American Physiological Society, the volume includes several chapters on the achievements of the 1981 American Medical Research Expedition to Mt. Everest, where the first physiological measurements at altitudes above 8,000 meters were recorded. With growing interest in the study of human performance in these conditions, this text marks a lasting achievement in high-altitude physiology.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction: American Medical Research Expedition to Everest • Man on the Summit of Mount Everest • Hypoxic Ventilatory Response and Exercise Ventilation at Sea Level and High Altitude • Human Cerebral Function at Extreme Altitude • Metabolic and Endocrine Changes at Altitude • Renin-Aldosterone System • Red Cell Function at Extreme Altitude • Sleep and Periodic Breathing at High Altitude: Sherpa Natives Versus Sojourners • Ventilatory Control During Sleep in Normal Humans • Hypoxia and Brain Blood Flow • Hypoxic Versus Hypocapnic Effects on Periodic Breathing During Sleep • Mechanisms for Recurrent Apneas at Altitude • Effects of Acclimatization on Sleep Hypoxemia at Altitude • Respiratory Control in Andean and Himalayan High-Altitude Natives • High-Altitude Polycythemia • Ventilatory Function in Adaptation to High Altitude: Studies in Tibet • Ventilation in Human Populations Native to High Altitude


Hyperglycemia, Diabetes and Vascular Disease

Ruderman, Neil; Williamson, Joseph; Brownlee, Michael (Eds.)
Originally Published by Oxford University Press 1992
1992, 320 p.
ISBN 978-1-4614-7524-8

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ABOUT THIS BOOK

  • There are over 12 million people with diabetes in the US
  • The authors review clinical, epidemiological, and biochemical evidence that high levels of blood glucose produce metabolic and biochemical alterations in vascular walls
  • Based on a 1989 FASEB symposium by the APS

There are over 12 million people with diabetes in the U.S. Blindness, renal failure, and coronary heart disease are the three most frequent complications of late-stage diabetes, and diabetic patients are at greater risk for developing these conditions than the rest of the population. This book examines the link between hyperglycemia and micro- and macro- vascular disease in diabetes. The authors review clinical, epidemiological, and biochemical evidence that high levels of blood glucose produce metabolic and biochemical alterations in vascular walls. These alterations in turn lead to abnormalities in vascular structure and, ultimately, function. Although there are differences in the pathogenesis of these two types of vascular disease, the emphasis in the book is on the common mechanisms by which hyperglycemia produces vascular alterations. This work is unique in providing an integrated picture of the effects of hyperglycemia on vascular metabolism, function, and disease. Implications for therapy are also discussed. Hyperglycemia, Diabetes and Vascular Disease is based on a 1989 FASEB symposium offered by the American Physiological Society, and is a volume in the Society's Clinical Physiology Series.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Hyperglycemia, Diabetes, and Vascular Disease: An Overview • Epidemiology of Hyperglycemia and Atherosclerosis • Altered Platelet Function in Diabetes Mellitus: Effect of Glycemic Regulation and Antiplatelet Agents • Diabetes Mellitus and the Vascular Endothelium • Cerebral Microvascular Transport and Metabolism: Implications for Diabetes • Mechanisms of Glucose- and Diabetes-Induced Vascular Dysfunction • Mechanisms of Early Hyperglycemia-Induced Alterations in Vascular Metabolism and Autoregulation • Dissociation of Retinopathy and Nephropathy in Animal Models of Diabetes: Diabetes vs Galactosemia • Cell Culture Model for the Study of Vascular Complications of Diabetes: The Effect of High Glucose Levels on Metabolism and Growth of Vascular Cells • Mobilization of Arachidonic Acid from Diacyl and Ether Phospholipids in Cultured Endothelial Cells • Glycation and Autoxidation of Proteins in Aging and Diabetes • Nonenzymatic Glycosylation of Macromolecules: Prospects for Pharmacologic Modulation • Cell-Mediated Interactions of Advanced Glycosylation End Products and the Vascular Wall • Effects of Nonenzymatic Glycation on Molecular Interactions of Basement Membrane Molecules • Effects of Diabetes on Kidney Proteoglycans


Atrial Hormones and Other Natriuretic Factors

Mulrow, Patrick J; Schrier, Robert W (Eds.)
Originally Published by Lippincott William and Wilkins 1987
1987, 178 p.
ISBN 978-1-4614-7529-3

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ABOUT THIS BOOK

  • Chronicles important actions of this new hormonal system
  • Provides the latest research on Atrial Hormones and other Natriuretic Factors
  • Written by experts in the field

For the first time, two vital physiological systems--the Na+-K+-ATPase inhibitor and the atrial hormones--are explored in one essential volume. Chapters exploring the atrial natriuretic factor describe the remarkable progress since de Bold's classic 1981 experiment, from advances in characterizing gene structure to measurement of blood levels in human disease. The book chronicles the important actions of this new hormonal system (aside from its effect on the kidney) in dilating blood vessels, inhibiting aldosterone and renin secretion, and increasing vascular permeability. The last three chapters describe the latest findings in the area of the Na+-K+-ATPase inhibitor, including factors of volume control and hypertension, arterial hypertension, and sodium-transport inhibitors as physiological regulators of the sodium pump.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Historical Perspectives of Atrial Specific Granules • Structure and Expression of the Atrial Natriuretic Factor Gene • Mechanisms Controlling Release of Atrial Natriuretic Peptide • Atriopeptin Expression in the Ventricle • Tissue Distribution of Atrial Natriuretic Factor and Determination of Its Concentration • Physiological Actions of Atrial Natriuretic Factor • Structure-Activity Relationships of Atrial Natriuretic Peptides • Renal Actions of Atrial Natriuretic Peptides • Effect of Atrial Peptides on the Adrenal Cortex • Atrial Natriuretic Factor in Animal Models for Hypertension • Effect of Human Atrial Natriuretic Peptide in Normal and Hypertensive Humans • Natriuretic and Sodium-Transport Inhibitory Factors Associated With Volume Control and Hypertension • Endogenous Sodium-Transport Inhibitors as Physiological Regulators of the Sodium Pump • Natriuretic Factors in Arterial Hypertension


Flow-Dependent Regulation of Vascular Function

Bevan, John A; Kaley, Gabor; Rubanyi, Gabor M (Eds.)
Originally Published by Oxford University Press 1995
1995, 371 p.
ISBN 978-1-4614-7527-9

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ABOUT THIS BOOK

  • Brings together research on the way in which blood flow can regulate vascular function
  • Particular emphasis is on vascular tone
  • Also examines the cellular and sub-cellular mechanisms involved, signal transduction systems, and role of flow-dependent mechanisms in various physiological regulating processes

This book brings together current research on the way in which blood flow can regulate vascular function--with particular emphasis on vascular tone. Evidence that this occurs is derived from the study of isolated cellular and tissue systems, in vitro vascular segments and vascular beds from both animals and humans. It seems likely that flow-sensitive mechanisms are found in most arteries and veins. Considerable attention is devoted in this book to the role of the endothelium. It also examines the cellular and sub-cellular mechanisms involved, the effective stimulus, the signal transduction systems, the role of flow-dependent mechanisms in various physiological regulating processes and the role of flow in the long-term design of the circulation system. Included are chapters concerned with the involvement of flow-related mechanisms in disease, for example arteriosclerosis, vasospasm and their alteration in heart failure and hypertension. It may be that sensitivity to flow represents an important underlying characteristic of the vascular system essential to its role in bringing the desired volume of blood to tissues in amounts appropriate to their need.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

The Design of Fluid Transport Systems: A Comparative Perspective • Shear Stress in the Circulation • Flow-Mediated Signal Transduction in Endothelial Cells • Gene Regulation in Endothelial Cells • Flow Effects on Endothelial Cell Signal Transduction, Function, and Mediator Release • Flow-Induced Vasodilation of Large Arteries: From “Ascending Reflex” to EDRF • The Role of Flow-Induced Contraction and Relaxation in the Regulation of Vascular Tone: Results of In Vitro Studies • Coronary Microvascular Responses to Flow • Endothelium-Derived Relaxing Factor and the Control of Flow in Conduit and Resistance Arteries • Regulation of Platelet Function by Flow-Induced Release of Endothelial Autacoids • Endothelial Control of Shear Stress and Resistance in the Skeletal Muscle Microcirculation • Overview of Regulatory Mechanisms in the Microcirculation • Blood Flow-Induced Remodeling of the Artery Wall • Atherosclerosis and the Role of Wall Shear Stress • Role of EDRF/NO in Chronic High Coronary Blood Flow States During Myocardial Dysfunction and Failure • Endothelial Role in Coronary Vasospasm and Atherosclerosis


Response and Adaptation to Hypoxia: Organ to Organelle

Lahiri, Sukhamay; Cherniak, Neil S; Fitzgerald, Robert S (Eds.)
Originally Published by Oxford University Press 1991
1991, 264 p.
ISBN 978-1-4614-7574-3

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ABOUT THIS BOOK

  • Covers the physiological responses and adaptations to hypoxia
  • The book emphasizes the molecular and cellular mechanisms
  • This book provides a useful reference for physiologists and other blood biologists, as well as pulmonary physicians

This unique volume covers the physiological responses and adaptations to hypoxia, the deficiency or absence of oxygen. These responses may occur at any level of an organism, from the mitochondria to organ systems, to the whole animal. The book emphasizes the molecular and cellular mechanisms, then integrates these responses in the context of organ and systems physiology, providing a useful reference for physiologists and other blood biologists, as well as pulmonary physicians.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Respiratory System Adaptation to Hypoxia: Lung to Mitochondria • Factors Affecting Adaptation of the Mitochondrial Enzyme Content to Cellular Needs • Regulation of Mitochondrial Distribution: An Adaptive Response to Changes in Oxygen Supply • Control of the Production of Erythropoietin by a Renal Oxygen-Sensor? • Hypoxia and Erythropoietin Production • Regulating Mechanisms Involved in the Expression of the Erythropoietin Gene • Expression of the Erythropoietin Gene in the Kidney and the Liver of the Anemic Mouse • Oxygen Sensing by Arterial Chemoreceptors • Oxygen Biology of Peripheral Chemoreceptors • Excitatory and Inhibitory Influences on the Ventilatory Augmentation Caused by Hypoxia • Control of Ventilation in Chronic Hypoxia Role of Peripheral Chemoreceptors • Molecular Mechanisms of Carotid Body Afferent Neuron Development • Relationship Between Erythropoiesis and Ventilation in High Altitude Natives • Geometrical Relationship Between Capillaries and Muscle Fibers in Chronic Hypoxia • Muscle Function at Altitude.-Acclimatization and Adaptation: Organ to Cell • Inborn Resistance to Hypoxia in High Altitude Adapted Humans • Differences in Pulmonary and Systemic Arterial Endothelial Cell Adaptation to Chronic Hypoxia • Pulmonary Hypoxic Vasoconstrictor Response: Modulation by the Peripheral Arterial Chemoreceptors • The Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System during Hypoxia • Hypoxic Birds: Temperature and Respiration • Central Adaptation to Hypoxia


Lung Development

Gaultier, Claude; Bourbon, Jacques R; Post, Martin (Eds.)
Originally Published by Oxford University Press 1999
1999, 472 p.
ISBN 978-1-4614-7537-8

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ABOUT THIS BOOK

  • Focuses on physiology of Lung Development
  • Written by key international leaders in the field
  • Comprehensive review of the complex series of cellular and molecular interactions required for lung development

Knowledge about the mechanisms of lung development has been growing rapidly, especially with regard to cellular and molecular aspects of growth and differentiation. This authoritative international volume reviews key aspects of lung development in health and disease by providing a comprehensive review of the complex series of cellular and molecular interactions required for lung development. It covers such topics as pulmonary hypoplasia, effects of malnutrition, and pulmaonary angiogenesis. An indispensable reference for all those involved in studying or treating lung disease in neonates and children, the book offers a unique view of the development of this essential organ.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Lung Branching Morphogenesis: Role of Growth Factors and Extracellular Matrix • Development of Lung Elastic Matrix • Differentiation and Maturation of Airway Epithelial Cells: Role of Extracellular Matrix and Growth Factors • Gene Expression in Alveolar Development • Lung Development and Pulmonary Angiogenesis • Development of the Pulmonary Vasculature • Nitric Oxide and Endothelin in the Developing Pulmonary Circulation: Physiologic and Clinical Implications • Development of Cellular Host Defense Mechanisms • Development of Lung Epithelial Ion Transport: Implications for Neonatal Lung Disease • Mechanisms of Cell Growth and Tissue Repair.-Bioactive Peptides and Lung Development • Transgenic Models of Lung Development and Disease • Nutritional Aspects of Lung Development • Pulmonary Hypoplasia: Role of Mechanical Factors in Prenatal Lung Growth • Pulmonary Antioxidant Defense Mechanisms • Lung Development after Transplantation


Hypoxia, Metabolic Acidosis, and the Circulation

Arieff, Allen I. (Ed.)
Originally Published by Oxford University Press 1992
1992, 232 p.
ISBN 978-1-4614-7542-2

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ABOUT THIS BOOK

  • Shows how hypoxia and metabolic acidosis affect the heart, lungs, blood vessels and other organs at the cellular level, the tissue level, and finally, at the level of the entire organ
  • Gives an overview of hypoxia and metabolic acidosis treatment
  • Written by experts in the field

In recent years, there has been a wealth of new information on the physiological and biochemical consequences of hypoxia, or low blood levels of oxygen. This new volume discusses the implications of these new findings on the pathophysiology, development, and treatment of hypoxic metabolic acidosis. The volume is part of the Clinical Physiology series sponsored by the American Physiological Society, and is based on a FASEB symposium held in May 1988. Hypoxia was once thought to affect organs in a similar manner, but it is now known that each is affected differently. The author shows how hypoxia and metabolic acidosis affect the heart, lungs, blood vessels and other organs at the cellular level, the tissue level, and finally, at the level of the entire organ. The book then proceeds to a description of the situations in which hypoxic metabolic acidosis develops, such as during high altitude exposure, cardiac arrest, and lactic acidosis. The last few chapters give an overview of treatment. Traditional therapy has consisted largely of the intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate. This method has come under increasing scrutiny however, and the range of problems associated with the use of sodium bicarbonate is examined fully. Newer alternative agents for managing hypoxic acidosis are reviewed as well. This up-to-date review of hypoxia and metabolic acidosis should be of interest to physiologists, internists, cardiologists, chest physicians, anesthesiologists, and intensive care specialists.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Circulatory Regulation during Hypoxia and Hypercapnia • Regulation of Myocardial Blood Flow and Oxygen Delivery during Hypoxia • Acid-Base Status and Blood Lactate at Extreme Altitude • Effects of Ischemia, Hypoxia, and Acidosis on Cardiac Systolic and Diastolic Function, and Glycolytic Metabolism in Normal and Hypertrophied Hearts • Clinical Implications of the Pathophysiology of Lactic Acidosis: The Role of Defects in Lactate Disposal • Acidosis and the Pulmonary Circulation • Pathogenesis of Metabolic Acidosis with Hypoxia • Effects of Sodium Bicarbonate on Myocardial Metabolism and Circulatory Function during Hypoxia • Alkalinizing Agents for the Treatment of Cardiac Arrest • Therapy of Lactic Acidosis: Alternatives to Sodium Bicarbonate


Pathophysiology of Hypertension in Blacks

Fray, John C.S.; Douglas, Janice G (Eds.)
Originally Published by Oxford University Press 1993
1992, 320 p.
ISBN 978-1-4614-7577-4

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ABOUT THIS BOOK

  • Based on symposium at the 1990 FASEB meeting
  • Examines research done to explain pathogenesis of hypertension among black Americans
  • Discusses underlying mechanisms that set the stage for the application of modern molecular biology to the pathophysiology of hypertension in Blacks

Overall, American blacks have twice the rate of high blood pressure of American whites and five to seven times the rate of severe hypertension. As a result, American blacks have a higher incidence of stroke (50%), heart disease (30%), and kidney disease (50%). Not only are blacks more likely to develop hypertension, but the disorder develops earlier, is often more severe, and is more likely to be fatal at an earlier age. While lack of early and aggressive treatment contributes to the problem, research has shown that physiological and environmental factors play an important role. Pathophysiology of Hypertension in Blacks examines much of the research that has been done to explain the pathogenesis of hypertension among black Americans. The book is divided into four sections. The first section considers genetic mechanisms of the disease. Increased sensitivity to salt, a common feature among both normotensive and hypertensive blacks, may have developed during the slave trade and slavery as a physiological adaptation to prevent death from excessive loss of salt and water; survival favored those most able to conserve salt, an ability which predisposes black Americans today to hypertension. During childhood, this enhanced salt-sensitivity may be complicated by insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. The second section examines the role of social, cultural, psychosocial, and socioeconomic factors in the pathogenesis of hypertension. The authors of these chapters present models and explanations that show how these factors may influence physiological variables. The third area of the book deals with the role of urbanization and salt (both in and out of Africa), the role of diet, the role of intracellular ion metabolism, and the increasing significance of renin. The last section of the book summarizes the evidence presented in earlier chapters, and also outlines therapeutic strategies that are effective in controlling blood pressure in hypertensive blacks. The book presents underlying physiological mechanisms which may become impaired and therefore sets the stage for the application of modern molecular biology to the pathophysiology of hypertension in blacks. This book is a volume in the Clinical Physiology Series of the American Physiological Society and is based on a symposium sponsored by the Society at the 1990 meeting of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. It will be valuable to both researchers and clinicians who study and treat hypertension in blacks.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Hypertension in Blacks: Physiological, Psychosocial, Theoretical, and Therapeutic Challenges • Salt, Slavery and Survival: Physiological Principles Underlying the Evolutionary Hypothesis of Salt-Sensitive Hypertension in Western Hemisphere Blacks • Characteristics of Prehypertension in Black Children • Social and Cultural Dimensions of Hypertension in Blacks: Underlying Mechanisms • Psychosocial Factors in Hypertension in Blacks: The Case for an Interactional Perspective • Autonomic Reactivity and Hypertension in Blacks: Toward a Contextual Model • Salt Sensitivity and Hypertension in African Blacks • Role of Nutrition in Black Hypertension: Calcium and Other Dietary Factors • Intracellular Ions and Hypertension in Blacks • (pro)Renin Processing and Secretion in Black Essential Hypertension and Other Low-Renin Syndromes • Pathogenesis of Hypertension in Blacks: Features of an Equilibrium Model • Drug Therapy in Black Hypertensives


Clinical Physiology of Sleep

Lydic, Ralph; Biebuyck, Julien F. (Eds.)
Originally Published by Oxford University Press 1988
1988, 256 p.
ISBN 978-1-4614-7599-6

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ABOUT THIS BOOK

  • Systematically discuss the role of the autonomic and respiratory systems in the sleep process
  • Also blends phenomenological description with cellular mechanisms and clinical correlations
  • Written by experts in the field

The Clinical Physiology Series strives to provide timely summaries of basic physiological research as it bears on clinically relevant topics. Considerable data obtained across different levels of behavioral arousal and sleep illustrate the undeniable clinical importance of efforts to understand the cellular mechanisms that cause state-dependent changes in physiology. First, it is an established fact that neuronal mechanisms regulating sleep and wakefulness significantly alter cardiovascular, respiratory, thermoregulatory control. Second, temporal studies have established correlations between time of day, time of certain pathophysiological events, and time of death. Third, occupational health and safety are known to be adversely affected by decreased levels of arousal that occur at predictable times of day. The alternation of waking and sleeping, the daily course of the advancing and receding tides of consciousness, has long been a familiar part of our experience. But it is a new idea that autonomic and respiratory physiology are equally and dramatically altered in a parallel fashion. It is this concept that is summarized, explored, and developed in this much needed book. Clinical Physiology of Sleep is the first book to systematically discuss the role of the autonomic and respiratory systems in the sleep process while blending phenomenological description with cellular mechanisms and clinical correlations. The central concept is the relationship of general physiological alterations during sleep to cellular physiology and to the pathology of sleep. The editors have drawn together thematically related chapters written by experts in this rapidly growing field. The book is sure to find an important place in the library of sleep researchers, respiratory and cardiovascular physiologists, neuroscientists, anesthesiologists, and clinicians concerned with sleep disorders.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Central Regulation of Sleep and Autonomic Physiology • Evolution and Comparative Physiology of Sleep in Animals • Behavioral State and Cardiac Arrhythmias • Sleep and Other Behavioral States Reflected in Cardiovascular Response Patterns • Cardiac and Respiratory Interactions Maintaining Homeostasis During Sleep • Neural Basis of Behavioral and State-Dependent Control of Breathing • Sleep-Dependent Changes in Upper Airway Muscle Function • Human Sleep-Disordered Breathing • Thermal Influences on REM Sleep • Sleep-Dependent Changes in the Thermoregulatory System • Thermoregulation During Sleep From the Viewpoint of Homeostasis • Regulation of Energy Metabolism and Body Temperature During Sleep and Circadian Torpor • Sleep Homeostasis in Humans and Rats • Homeostasis and Heteroplasticity: Functional Significance of Behavioral State Sequences • Anesthesia and Sleep: A Search for Mechanisms and Research Approaches


Endothelin

Rubanyi, Gabor M (Ed.)
Originally Published by Oxford University Press 1992
1992, 306 p.
ISBN 978-1-4614-7514-9

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ABOUT THIS BOOK

  • Focuses on Endothelin and its molecular biology, biosynthesis, biological actions, and potential physiological and pathological importance
  • Summarizes history of this unique peptide
  • Comprehensive monograph is an indispensable reference for basic scientists and clinicians

Merely three years after the discovery of endothelin, a large amount of information has been generated about the molecular biology, biosynthesis, biological actions and potential physiological and pathological importance of this unique peptide and its isoforms. This first book on endothelins summarizes the early events which lead to the discovery of endothelin, the progress made in understanding the peptide's physiological role, and the current state-of-the-art in contemporary endothelin research. The book also discusses the potential significance of endothelins in health and disease, covers the potential role of the peptides in the integrated control of the cardiovascular system, and outlines future research directions. This comprehensive monograph is an indispensable reference for basic scientists and clinicians.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Endothelium-Derived Contracting Factors • From Endotensin to Endothelin: The Discovery and Characterization of an Endothelial Cell-;Derived Constricting Factor • Molecular Biology of Endothelins • Endothelin Structure and Structure-Activity Relationships • Endothelin Receptors and Receptor Subtypes • Tissue Specificity of Endothelin Synthesis and Binding • Cellular Actions of Endothelin in Vascular Smooth Muscle • Interaction between Endothelin and Endothelium-Derived Relaxing Factor(s) • Endothelin as a Growth Factor in Vascular Remodeling and Vascular Disease • Endothelin and the Heart • Renal and Systemic Hemodynamic Actions of Endothelin • Endothelin, a Ubiquitous Peptide: Morphological Demonstration of Immunoreactive and Synthetic Sites and Receptors in the Respiratory Tract and Central Nervous System • Endothelin in Human Disease. I: Essential Hypertension, Vasospastic Angina, Acute Myocardial Infarction, and Chronic Renal Failure • Endothelin in Human Disease. II: Shock, Pulmonary Hypertension, and Congestive Heart Failure • Endothelin and the Homeostatic Function of the Endothelial Cell • Hypothetical Role of Endothelin in the Control of the Cardiovascular System


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