Methods in Physiology

This series describes experimental techniques in cellular, molecular and general physiology. Each book is edited by experts in their field and covers theory and history behind the method, critical commentary, major applications with examples, limitations and extensions of each technique, and vital future directions.

Titles in this Series


Membrane Protein Structure: Experimental Approaches

White, Stephen H (Ed.)
Originally Published by Oxford University Press 1994
1994, 416 p.
ISBN 978-1-4614-7515-6

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ABOUT THIS BOOK

  • Focuses on membrane protein structure
  • The reviews presented here emphasize fundamental ideas and provide an entry to the diverse and complex literature
  • The four major sections deal with the general nature of the membrane protein structure problem, biochemical and molecular biological approaches to protein topology, direct structural methods, and model and physicochemical approaches
  • The work will be of interest to physiologists, cellular and molecular biologists, biophysicists, and biochemists

Studies of receptors, ion channels, and other membrane proteins require a solid understanding of the structural principles of these important biomolecules. Membrane protein structure is, however, a very challenging field. The structures of only three types of transmembrane proteins have been determined to moderate or high resolution during the last two decades, a period during which the amino acid sequences of hundreds, if not thousands, of membrane proteins have been reported. As a result, the creation of structural models to serve as guides for studies of receptors, channels, and other membrane proteins has become crucially important. This book has been assembled in order to share the experiences and findings of expert researchers in protein structure and structure-prediction methods as well as membrane biophysics and lipid physical chemistry, whose work establishes the basis for the development of suitable model structures. The reviews presented here emphasize fundamental ideas and provide an entry to the diverse and complex literature. The four major sections deal with the general nature of the membrane protein structure problem, biochemical and molecular biological approaches to protein topology, direct structural methods, and model and physicochemical approaches. The work will be of interest to physiologists, cellular and molecular biologists, biophysicists, and biochemists working on the function of membrane proteins such as receptors, ion channels, and transporters, as well as senior graduate students and independent investigators.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Membrane Protein Structure and Stability: Implications of the First Crystallographic Analyses • Decoding the Signals of Membrane Protein Sequences • Folding and Assembly of Integral Membrane Proteins: An Introduction • Hydropathy Plots and the Prediction of Membrane Protein Topology • Experimental Determination of the Topography of Membrane Proteins: Lessons from the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor, a Multisubunit Polytopic Protein • Use of Gene Fusions to Determine Membrane Protein Topology • Structure of F0F1 ATPases Determined by Direct and Indirect Methods • Experimental Determination of Membrane Protein Secondary Structure Using Vibrational and CD Spectroscopies • High-Resolution Electron Crystallography of Membrane Proteins • Site-Directed Spin Labeling of Membrane Proteins • Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Approaches to Membrane Protein Structure • Structure of Integral Membrane Proteins within Membranes via X-Ray and Neutron Diffraction: From Oriented Multilayers to a Single Monolayer • Physical Studies of Peptide-Bilayer Interactions • Membrane Protein Structure: Lessons from Gramicidin • Use of Synthetic Peptides for the Study of Membrane Protein Structure • Diffraction Studies of Model and Natural Helical Peptides


Fractal Physiology

Bassingthwaighte, James B, Liebovitch, Larry S, West, Bruce J
Originally Published by Oxford University Press 1994
1994, 384 p.
ISBN 978-1-4614-7572-9

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ABOUT THIS BOOK

  • This volume delineates the use of fractal patterns and measures of fractal dimensions in describing and understanding general aspects of biology, particularly human physiology
  • After describing the ubiquitous nature of fractal phenomena, the authors give examples of the properties of fractals in space and time
  • Proceeding from mathematical definitions, they develop detailed practical methods for assessing the fractal characteristics of wave forms varying with time, tissue density variation, and surface irregularities
  • Most importantly, the authors show how fractal variation defines internal spatial or temporal correlations within the fractal system or object

This volume delineates the use of fractal patterns and measures of fractal dimensions in describing and understanding general aspects of biology, particularly human physiology. After describing the ubiquitous nature of fractal phenomena, the authors give examples of the properties of fractals in space and time. Proceeding from mathematical definitions, they develop detailed practical methods for assessing the fractal characteristics of wave forms varying with time, tissue density variation, and surface irregularities. Most importantly, the authors show how fractal variation defines internal spatial or temporal correlations within the fractal system or object. Simple, recursively applied rules can give rise to complex biological structures by a variety of methods. This suggests that genetic rules govern the general structuring of an organism, while rules implied by interactions at the biochemical, cellular, and tissue levels govern ontogenic development and therefore play the major role in the growth of an organism. Chaos, or non-linear dynamics, is introduced as a stimulating way to examine biological behavior at the cellular and whole animal levels, even though proof of the chaotic nature of normal physiologic events is as yet meager. The later chapters give sets of examples of structural and behavioral fractal phenomena in nerve and muscle, in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems and in growth processes. Why molecular interactions and complex systems give rise to fractals is explored and related to the ideas of emergent properties of systems operating at high levels of complexity.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction: Fractals Really Are Everywhere • Properties of Fractal Phenomena in Space and Time • The Fractal Dimension: Self-Similar and Self-Affine Scaling • Fractal Measures of Heterogeneity and Correlation • Generating Fractals • Properties of Chaotic Phenomena • From Time to Topology: Is a Process Driven by Chance or Necessity? • Ion Channel Kinetics: A Fractal Time Sequence of Conformational States • Fractals in Nerve and Muscle • Intraorgan Flow Heterogeneities • Fractal Growth • Mechanisms That Produce Fractals • Chaos? in Physiological Systems


Physiology of Inflammation

Ley, Klaus (Ed.)
Originally Published by Oxford University Press 2001
2001, 546 p.
ISBN 978-1-4614-7512-5

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ABOUT THIS BOOK

  • Covers the physiological process relevant to inflammation
  • Addressed from a vascular perspective
  • Intended to serve as an advanced textbook or reference for those studying the physiology of inflammation

This book covers the physiological processes relevant to inflammation. Although the problem is addressed from a vascular perspective, pathological aspects are also considered. The book centers on the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of injury and infection, their function in the tissue, and the eventual resolution of inflammation. It starts with the formation of leukocytes and the physiology of their transport to the sites of inflammation, considers endothelial activation, and covers all kinds of leukocyte activators including chemokines. Signal transduction pathways for chemoattractants and the activation of neutrophil functions are discussed. Several chapters review the various adhesion molecules and pertinent methods to study their function, including flow chambers, knockout mice, measurement of soluble adhesion molecules and intravital microscopy. The book is aimed at medical residents, graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and physicians and scientists in physiology, pharmacology, biomedical engineering, pathology, immunology, infectious disease and related disciplines. It is intended to serve as an advanced textbook or reference for studying the physiology of inflammation.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

History of Inflammation Research • Formation and Differentiation of Leukocytes • Blood Flow Regulation in Inflammation • Microvascular Permeability in Inflammation • Cytokines and Endothelial Cell Activation • Chemokines and Chemokine Receptors • Lipid Mediators of Inflammation • Complement in Inflammation • Chemoattractant Receptor-G-Protein Coupling • Antimicrobial Activity of Leukocytes • In Vitro Flow Models of Leukocyte Adhesion • Selectins and Their Ligands in Inflammation • ß2 Integrins and Their Ligands in Inflammation • VCAM-1 and Its Ligands.-Soluble Leukocyte-Endothelial Adhesion Molecules • Leukocyte Recruitment as Seen by Intravital Microscopy • Transmigration of Leukocytes • Knockout Mice in Inflammation Research • Interface Between Inflammation and Coagulation • Coagulation and Fibrinolysis During Endotoxemia and Gram-Negative Sepsis • Oxygen Radicals in Inflammation • Nitric Oxide in Inflammation • Mast Cells in Inflammation • Resolution of Inflammation


Methods in Cellular Imaging

Periasamy, Ammasi (Ed.)
Originally Published by Oxford University Press 2001
2001, 448 p.
ISBN 978-1-4614-7513-2

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ABOUT THIS BOOK

  • Well illustrated book explains basic concepts and imaging procedures
  • Authors descrube approaches to selecting epiflourescence microscopy, detectors, and image acquisition and processing software for different biological adaptations
  • Written for graduate students and scientists

Advances in technology have revolutionized the development of light microscopy techniques in biomedical research, thus improving visualization of the microstructure of cells and tissues under physiological conditions. Fluorescence microscopy methods are non-contact and non-invasive and provide high spatial and temporal resolution that other laboratory techniques cannot. This well-illustrated book targets graduate students and scientists who are new to the state-of-the-art fluorescence microscopy techniques used in biological and clinical imaging. It explains basic concepts and imaging procedures for wide-field, confocal, multiphoton excitation, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), lifetime imaging (FLIM), spectral imaging, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), optical tweezers, total internal reflection, high spatial resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM), and bioluminescence imaging for gene expression. The usage of these techniques in various biological applications, including calcium, pH, membrane potential, mitochondrial signaling, protein-protein interactions under various physiological conditions, and deep tissue imaging, is clearly presented. The authors describe the approaches to selecting epifluorescence microscopy, the detectors, and the image acquisition and processing software for different biological applications. Step-by-step directions on preparing different digital formats for light microscopy images on websites are also provided.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Basics of Fluorescence • Fluorophores and Their Labeling Procedures for Monitoring Various Biological Signals • Detectors for Fluorescence Microscopy • Basics of a Light Microscopy Imaging System and Its Application in Biology • Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Applied to Living Cells and Tissues • Functional Imaging of Mitochondria Within Cells • Diffusion Measurements by Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching • Processing Microscope-Acquired Images for Use in Multimedia, Print, and the World Wide Web • Basic Principles of Multiphoton Excitation Microscopy • Building a Two-Photon Microscope Using a Laser Scanning Confocal Architecture • Two-Photon Microscopy in Highly Scattering Tissue • Multiphoton Laser Scanning Microscopy and Dynamic Imaging in Embryos • In vivo Diffusion Measurements Using Multiphoton Excitation Fluorescence Photobleaching Recovery and Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy • Cellular Response to Laser Radiation in Fluorescence Microscopes • Measurement of Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer in the Optical Microscope • Frequency-Domain Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy: A Window on the Biochemical Landscape of the Cell • Wide-Field, Confocal, Two-Photon, and Lifetime Resonance Energy Transfer Imaging Microscopy • One- and Two-Photon Confocal Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging and Its Applications • Biological Applications of Time-Resolved, Pump-Probe Fluorescence Microscopy and Spectroscopy in the Frequency Domain • Spectral Microscopy for Quantitative Cell and Tissue Imaging • Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy • Laser Traps in Cell Biology and Biophysics • Bioluminescence Imaging of Gene Expression in Living Cells and Tissues • Imaging Living Cells and Mapping Their Surface Molecules with the Atomic Force Microscope

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